Tuesday, May 25, 2010


1882 Anglo-Egyptian War:-n 1881, an Egyptian Army officer, Colonel Ahmad Urabi (see Ahmed Orabi), initiated a coup against the Ottoman Khedive in Egypt because of grievances over disparities in pay between Egyptian and European employees, as well as other concerns (see Urabi Revolt). In January 1882 the British and French governments sent the "Joint Note" to the Egyptian government, declaring their recognition of the Khedive's authority. On May 20, 1882, British and French warships arrived off the coast of Alexandria. On June 11, 1882, a riot occurred in Alexandria that killed 50 Europeans, though Colonel Urabi ordered his forces to put down the riot. On July 11, 1882, British warships began their bombardment of Alexandria.

The British army tried to reach Cairo through Alexandria but was stopped for five weeks at Kafr-el-Dawwar. In August, a British army of over 40,000, commanded by Garnet Wolseley, invaded the Suez Canal Zone. He was authorized to destroy Urabi's forces and clear the country of all other rebels.

Battle of Tel el-Kebir
This important battle was fought on September 13, 1882. The Urabi forces were routed and the capital was captured. Khedive power was then restored as the authority of Egypt.

British occupation

British troops then occupied Egypt until the Anglo-Egytpian Treaty of 1922 and Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, giving gradual control back to the government of Egypt.
Hopkins argues that the British continued its occupation of Egypt after 1882 in order to guarantee British investments, "Britain had important interests to defend in Egypt and she was prepared to withdraw only if conditions guaranteeing the security of those interests were met - and they never were

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