Wednesday, April 20, 2011

[9] MUMBAI/BOMBAY

               DEDICATED TO THE FIRST CITY-MUMBAI-[BOMBAY] ;OF INDIA.part-9 OF 9


[PART-1Ahttp://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1a-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also_3982.html


[PART-1Bhttp://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1-b-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html


[PART-2]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html


[PART-3]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western_02.html

[PART-4]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/4glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html


[PART-5]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/dedicated-to-first-city-mumbai-bombay.html


[PART-6]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6.html


[PART-7]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6-glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html

[PART-8]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/7.html


[PART-9]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/first-anglo-maratha-war-was-first-of.html

[part-10] http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/06/bombay-history-of-cinema-1896-and.html

[part-11]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/06/indian-modes-of-irrigation1874-elephant.html

ASI [Archaeological Survey of India ]- fish out Elephanta island’s Roman links





Roman empire trade route to India



ELEPHANTA ISLAND (NEAR MUMBAI GATE WAY OF INDIA)




BOAT FROM ELEPHANTA CAVES TO MUMBAI GATE WAY OF INDIA

GATE WAY OF INDIA ;OUTLINE OF ELEPHANTA ISLAND CAN BE SEEN IN DISTANCE

ELEPHANTA ISLAND WITH FISHERMAN'S BOATS



 Extensive explorations on the island—its shores and the beaches—have revealed a treasure indicating existence of a rich trade with the late Roman Empire during the 4th to 7th century AD.



INSIDE ELEPHANTA CAVES


The findings establish it as a significant port of the period—a fact hitherto unknown. And that people on the west coast liked imported goods and Roman wine. The small island, east of Mumbai, was, so far, best known for its cave temples and rock-cut images, specially of the monolithic elephant which once stood on its southern tip.
With the Underwater Archaeology Wing of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) finding late Roman amphorae, coins and sherds of pottery — including red polished ware, black slipped ware, red ware and some gray ware — on Elephanta, the stage is now set for a proper excavation around the island. The finding had come as a surprise, since so far, large number of amphorae were found only in Kanchipuram and Arikamedu.
Amphora is one of the principal vessel shapes in Greek pottery. They are handled pots used to transport a variety of things including olives, cereals, oil, wine, fish and even metal.






ROMAN AMPHORA FROM AN OLD SHIP WRECK




Head of ASI’s Underwater Archaeology Wing Dr Alok Tripathi had been quietly exploring the island since 1988, but it’s only in the last two years that extensive explorations were done. The richest site turned out to be the area around village Mora Bandar on the island.
‘‘The discovery of a large variety of amphorae and other antiquities on the island may solve some of the historical riddles,’’ said Tripathi. In addition to indicating continuity of trade with the western world during 5th-7th century AD, the findings may also answer why Chalukya King Pulakesin II of Badami had invaded this small island with a tiny population and limited natural resources in 634 AD.
File:Chalukya territories lg.png

‘‘We probably know why he did it. Elephanta appears to have been a prosperous island with a thriving trade,’’ said the underwater archaeologist. It is all the more significant since around the same period, the cave temple on the island, enshrining Mahesmurti, was excavated.
Since the explorations had yielded rich treasures, the next logical thing is to undertake detailed survey and excavation. Tripathi said that the area around Mora Bandar is strewn with a large number of potsherds. ‘‘Even the sand on the shore, at the north and the east of the village, is full of potsherds washed away and rolled by the waves,’’ he said.















Once Upon a Time in Mumbai- Duniya Mein Logo Ko - 


































































Mohd Rafi, A legend of legends


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Wednesday, April 13, 2011

[8]Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)and photos of the people of india

[PART-1Ahttp://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1a-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also_3982.html



[PART-1Bhttp://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/09/1-b-bombaymumbai-taxi-1850-to-2001-also.html

[PART-2]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html


[PART-3]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western_02.html


[PART-4]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/4glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html


[PART-5]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/dedicated-to-first-city-mumbai-bombay.html


[PART-6]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6.html


[PART-7]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/6-glimpses-of-old-bombay-and-western.html


[PART-8]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/7.html


[PART-9]http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/04/first-anglo-maratha-war-was-first-of.html

[part-10] http://oldphotosbombay.blogspot.com/2011/06/bombay-history-of-cinema-1896-and.html

DEDICATED TO THE FIRST CITY-MUMBAI-[BOMBAY] ;OF INDIA.part-8 OF 9

HMS Calcutta -SHIP MADE IN BOMBAY 1831

File:Tissot HMS Calcutta.jpg

HMS Calcutta was an 84-gun second-rate ship-of-the-line of the Royal Navy, built in teak to a draught by Sir Robert Seppings and launched on 14 March 1831 in Bombay. She was the only ship ever built to her draught. She carried her complement of smooth-bore, muzzle-loading guns on two gundecks. Her complement was 720 men (38 officers, 69 petty officers, 403 seamen, 60 boys and 150 marines).

In 1855 the ship had been in reserve, but was recommissioned for the war between Russia and Britain and sailed for the Baltic. After two months she was sent home again, as being useless for modern naval actions.

1526 -Bombay--naval fight between Gujerat sultan's fleet and Portuguese navy from Colaba via Sion to Bandra

On leaving Chaul for Diu, 'on the day after Shrove Tuesday,' Sampayo came unexpectedly on the Cambay fleet in Bombay harbour. After a furious cannonade the Portuguese boarded the enemy and Alishah fled hoping to escape by the Mahim creek.


View from Sion Fort --Artist: Wales, James (1747-1795)


This is plate 10 from James Wales' 'Bombay Views'. The series was painted for Sir Charles Malet (1752-1815), the British Resident of Poona, who Wales met in Bombay in 1791.

The view looks down from the Sion Fort gate to Bombay and the Neat's Tongue, bounded by the Mahratta Mountains. The Sion Fort was constructed in 1669/77 by the Governor of Bombay, General Gerald Aungier and it commanded the passage from Bombay to the neighbouring island of Salsette. The fort was of great importance to the British because Salsette was under the control of the Marathas.

a two wheeled bullock cart can be seen


But the Portuguese had stationed boats at Bandra, and all Alishah's vessels but seven were taken. Of the seventy-three prizes thirty-three were fit for work and were kept; the rest were burned. Besides the vessels many prisoners were made, and much artillery and abundance of ammunition were taken. [Feria in Kerr's Voyages, VI. 209, 210. This summary of Faria's account of the battle of Bombay seems to differ in some particulars from the account in De Barros.' Asia (Decada, IV. Part I. 208-210,Lisbon Ed. of 1777). According to De Barros the Portuguese caught sight of the Gujarat fleet off a promontory. As Sylyeira drew near, the Gujrat fleet retired behind the promontory, and he sent some ships to guard the mouth of the river.

When Sylveira drew near, the Gujarat ships set sail and ran into the river, and when they found that the mouth of the river was occupied, they tried to reach Mahim fort, but, before they reached Mahim, they were surrounded and captured by the Portuguese boats which had been sent to, guard the mouth of the creek. This account is not altogether clear. Apparently what happened was that when the Gujrat boats saw the Portuguese, they drew back from the Prongs Point into the Bombay harbour, and when the Portuguese fleet attacked them, they fled up the harbour to the mouth of the river (that is the Bombay harbour or east mouth of the Mahim creek) not daring to try their fortune is the open sea.'

The Portuguese captain learned from his local pilots that the Gujarat fleet probably meant to retreat through the Bandra creek, and accordingly sent boats to guard its mouth. The Gujarat fleet entered the creek by Sion, and, on nearing Mahim, saw the Portuguese boats blocking the entrance of the creek.

To avoid them they made for the Musalman fort of Mahim, at the south end of the present Bandra causeway, but the Portuguese saw their object and coming up the creek cut them off,

De Barros' account has been supposed ('Lateen' in Times of India, 21st April 1882) to favour the view that the fight was not in the harbour, but in the open sea off Malabar point. To this view the objection are, that when the Gujarat fleet retired behind Colaba point on catching sight of the Portuguese, they must have gone into Back Bay a dangerous and unlikely movement. That if they came out again to fight, they must have seen the Portuguese boats being sent on to Bandra, and that when, in their flight, the Gujarat fleet found the mouth of the Bandra creek blocked, they could not have attempted to take shelter in Mahim.

the attempt to take shelter in Mahim, when the mouth of the creek was found to be blocked, shows that the Gujarat fleet was leaving not entering the Bandra or Mahim river.]


Glimpses of old Bombay and western India, with other papers (1900)

Schools

. With regard to schools, in 1818 Mrs. Hunt advertises a boarding-school for twenty young ladies ; Rs. 25 per mensem, English (grammatically), writing and arithmetic, plain needlework, embroidery in silk, in landscape, fruits, and flowers. Lessons in forte-piano. Rs. 20 to boarders only. Drawing, Rs. 10. Dancing, Rs. 10

. And in 1821 Mr. Joliffe, from Breach House, calls attention to his tuition in music and dancing, which he terms " the superficial branches of education." A young lady's accomplishments in those days are described by a Bombay poetaster : — " She excels on the harp, works patterns with skill, Writes a lady-like hand, can waltz and quadrille; In temper she is amiable, perhaps to a fault, Drinks sparing of wine and abominates malt."

There are some bitter wails from the Mofussil, showing that Bombay was not the dull place we are apt to imagine in 1830:— "Caro amico, dwelling in Bombay, Resort of all that's beautiful and gay ; Where routs and balls, with dinners, fetes and tea, Dispel that fiend the ladies -call Ennui; Where grief, if grief should come, changes her style And turns to joy on lovely B it's smile : Listen while I, a bahish'd man, deplore My hopeless fate and rail at Bassadore." For the harder sex there was no want of the means of education.

Listen to this in 1821 : — " Boyer and Joliffe beg to state to their friends and the public that the individual whom they have selected to attend their establishment, in the capacity of Drawing Master, is Mr. (C'onstantine Augusto, a person who is well versed in the doctrine of angles of animo-anatomic proportion, is peculiarly correct in landscape, chaste colouring, and perspective. Young gentry who are not, therefore, receiving instruction at the mathematics school and may wish to benefit by Mr. Augusto's abilities, may be accommodated by sending their commands to the Masters of that establishment."


1831' Mr. Bennett's Day School, No. 6, Rampart Row: reading, writing and arithmetic, Rs. 5 per month; English, German and book-keeping, Rs. 7 per month.

In 1837 Mr. Boswell's School is highly commended. We rather think Mr. Vurjivundas Madhowdas, the head of the Hindoo community (1894), was a pupil of Mr. Boswell's, as Mr. Manockjee Cursetjee, familiarly called the " Byron of the East," was of Mr. Bennett

. Education in England you see is not a sine qua non.

Mr. Telang, late Judge of the High Court, was the flower and fruit of a later period, that of the Elphinstone College, and had never been in Europe.

James Thomason, the founder of Roorki, had to content himself with Calcutta upbringing until he was 10, like Robert Grant, who became Governor of Bombay, and spent his early years in the boarding-school of the Rev. Mr. Brown of the same city.

Portrait of a Brahmin of the Carnatic, Bombay.1900'S

Studio portrait of Sonar group, Bombay.

Studio portrait of Sonar group, Bombay.

Bankoty group,[from konkan] Bombay.

Bankoty group, Bombay.


Sandalwood carvers at work

Photograph of sandalwood carvers at work in India, taken by an unknown photographer in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of Indian Collections.




Photograph of blackwood carvers at work in India, taken by an unknown photographer in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. This image showing two wood carvers at work, surrounded by elaborately carved furniture in the workshop, was probably shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by J.F.Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875.Bhattia turban folders at work
Photograph of turban folders at work in India, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. This image, of a group of workers folding turbans on wooden model heads, was probably shown at the Vienna Universal Exhibition of the same year. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by J.F.Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875.Women gathering cowdung, Ahmadabad
Photograph of women gathering cowdung at Ahmadabad in Gujarat, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1870, from the Archaeological Survey of India. Narayen contributed to the book 'The People of India', published by the India Museum in 1868-75. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Cow dung is collected and made into flat round 'patties' which are dried on walls and roofs and then sold as fuel and used extensively on cooking fires and for heating. It has many other uses, including fertiliser and as a flooring material when mixed with mud and water.
Gold puggree border weaver
Photograph of a gold puggree border weaver at work in India, taken by Shivashankar Narayan in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. This image shows a craftsman weaving the border of a puggree, an expensive turban, made of gold thread; thread which has been mixed with gold wire made from gold leaf melted onto silver bars and forced through small holes in a steel plate to form very fine gauge wires. Metal threads from India were considered less likely to tarnish than products from other sources. The pulleys of the narrow loom pictured are affixed to the wall opposite the weaver and also to the ceiling of the small workshop and there appear to be regimental badges attached to the wall. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions.

Brahmin group, Bombay.--Photographer: Chintamon, Hurrichund Medium: Photographic print Date: 1860

Brahmin group, Bombay.
Studio portrait of six Brahmins, or priests, in Mumbai, taken by Hurrichund Chintamon in the 1860s. This photograph is from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections; one of a series of ethnographical photographs commissioned by the Government of India in the late 19th century to gather information about the people and monuments of India. Material was submitted by both professional and amateur photographers. Ethnographical prints were also produced by large photographic firms and temporary studios in India to meet European demands for souvenirs from the East and in response the rising interest in ethnography. Brahmins are the highest of the four Hindu castes.Dhulloo and Dedar Khan (jemadars or head servants)
This lithograph was taken from plate 4 of Emily Eden's 'Portraits of the Princes and People of India'. Eden wrote: "The figures in the print are Jemadars of Chuprassies or head men of the servants, whom it is usual to employ in India, for the purposes of taking orders, carrying letters &c. They are generally dressed in a kind of livery suited to the native costume." A keen amateur artist, Eden painted the diverse people she met in India. She also detailed her observations and opinions on what she saw in letters to her sister, which were published in 1866 in two volumes, entitled 'Up the Country'.

Cotton stacks and 'churka' or cotton gin in operation, Berar--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1866

Cotton stacks and 'churka' or cotton gin in operation, Berar
Photograph of cotton stacks and a 'charka' or cotton gin in operation at Berar in India, taken by an unknown photographer in 1866, from the Archaeological Survey of Indian Collections. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875. This photograph shows a group of workers posed among piles of cotton. In the middleground two women operate a small charka or gin, while in the foreground a man is posed with a spinning wheel. In the exhibition catalogue of the Vienna exhibition of 1873 Watson describes of one of these machines, "[the charka] consists of two rollers, either one of iron and one of wood, or both of wood, revolving in opposite directions. The fibre is drawn through between the rollers, the seed, which is too bulky to pass through, falling on the other side. The machine is very simple, and seldom gets out of order, and the principle on which it works is the foundation of most of the cotton gins made from time to time in Europe...The native gins do their work fairly enough, but much seed is sometimes found in the cotton thus cleaned".Dubgurs at work, Surat

Dyers at work, Western India--Photographer: Narayen, Shivashanker Medium: Photographic print Date: 1873

Dyers at work, Western India
Photograph of dyers at work in Western India, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875. This image of a group of dyers posed beside vats is probably the photograph shown at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873, and described by Watson in the catalogue as follows: "The vats are of clay, and built in as shown in the picture. The furnace goes right under the vat, the fuel used being the integument of the coca-nut."

Unknown photographer,-- Bhali Sooltans--, Oude, ca. 1862

Portrait of trio

Country shoe makers, probably in Western India--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1873

William Johnson,
Ghur-Baree (Householding) Country shoe makers, probably in Western IndiaGosaees, Bombay, 1850suun unknown photographer in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. This image of a group of shoemakers seated at work on the verandah of a workshop was shown at the Vienna Universal Exhibition of 1873. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to187

Cloth stamper, Western India--Photographer: Narayen, Shivashanker Medium: Photographic print Date: 1873

Cloth stamper, Western India
-Photograph of a cloth stamper seated at a low table on the verandah of a house in Western India, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1873, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. The craft of block printing cotton fabrics is particularly associated with Gujarat. The motifs include flowers, animals, people and abstract designs. The wooden blocks, carved with the design to be printed, have a handle on the back. They are made from woods that are light in weight, gurjun (Dipterocarpus Turbinatus-Gaert) or seasoned teak (Tectona Grandis-Linn); the former wears better when used as a block. Fabrics are still printed this way in India to this day. This image is probably the photograph shown at the Vienna Exhibition of the same year, and described by Watson in catalogue as follows: 'Printing...This is done by wooden stamps, which are charged with the colouring matter, and applied one after the other as the design may require.'

Worker preparing thread for sari weaving--Photographer: Shivashanker Narayen Medium: Photographic print Date: 1870

Worker preparing thread for sari weaving
In the early 1860s the Governor General of India Lord Canning commissioned ethnographical photographs for the whole of India. This image showing a worker crouching beside a spinning wheel [charkha] and paying off thread to a reel at the right, is probably one of the series of views of cotton manufacture shown by Narayan at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873.

Studio portrait of three Shenoy Bhatias, Bombay.

Full-length portrait of three seated Shenoy Bhatias in Mumbai, posed against a painted backdrop, taken by Hurrichund Chintamon c. 1867. This photograph is part of the Archaeological Survey of India Collections and was on show in the Paris exhibition of 1867. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Ethnographical prints were produced by large photographic firms operating in India as well as by smaller or temporary studios to meet European demands for souvenirs from the East. Chintamon had the oldest firm in Bombay.

























Studio portrait of three Shenoy Bhatias, Bombay.






Photograph of a goldsmith at work in Delhi in India, taken by Shepherd and Robertson in c.1863. This image of the goldsmith blowing on his furnace through a tube is used as illustration no.186 in volume IV of 'The People of India' (1869). The text states, "The Sonar or gold and silversmith is an indispensible member of the Indian social condition of life; and he is to be found in every village, almost in every hamlet, as well as in all towns and cities. In the Deccan, where original national institutions are preserved in village communes, and wherever they are at present existant throughout India - the Sonar is a member of the hereditary village council, which includes the carpenter and blacksmith, the potter, and other useful and indispensible mechanics, and is twelve in number, presided over by the patell, the hereditary magistrate or head manager





























Goldsmith


Studio portrait of a Kathiawar Rajput, at Bombay.

































A studio portrait of a Kathiawar Rajput gentleman posed with a hookah, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. This was taken by Hurrichund Chintamon and shown in the Paris Exhibition of 1867. In the 19th century photographers found that the sub-continent offered limitless opportunities to record a vast diversity of peoples and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Ethnographical prints were produced by large firms operating in India as well as by smaller or temporary studios to meet European demands for souvenirs from the East. Figures were often posed to display their characteristic attributes and artefacts. The Indian photographer Hurrichund Chintamon began one of the oldest photographic firms in Bombay (1858-81). He made a notable contribution to the book, 'The People of India'. Indian Museum, London, 1868-75.

Blacksmith at work (studio reconstruction)
Two women grinding at a mill (studio reconstruction)

Shrofs. Money changer--Photographer: Shepherd and Robertson Medium: Photographic print Date: 1863

Studio portrait of shroffs or money changers at Delhi in India, taken by Shepherd and Robertson in c.1863. This image of two men, seated with account books and piles of coins, is reproduced as illustration number 185 in Volume IV of John Forbes Watson's 'The People of India' (1869). The accompanying text states, "Shroffs are not always Bunneas (small traders), although the person illustrated may have been one. They are not unfrequently Brahmins, who have adopted a secular calling, and deal in money - Khutris, and other castes, Vaisya and Sudra. Their trade is the exchange of money, the giving change for rupees in pyce or copper coin, and for pyce in cowries. In the higher branches of his calling, the Shroff discounts hoodees, or bills of exchange, bonds, and promissory notes. He deals also in bullion, in small or large quantities, buys and sells ornaments, old and new pearls, and precious stones of all kinds. Finally, he lends money, generally on pledges of gold and silver ornaments, in small proportion to their value, but at moderate interest."
Shrofs. Money changer

Embroiderer
Photograph of an embroiderer in Delhi taken by Shepherd and Robertson in c.1863. This image of a man seated cross-legged at his embroidery frame is reproduced as illustration no.188 in volume IV of John Forbes Watson's 'The People of India' (1869), where it is captioned 'Scarfmaker'. The accompanying text states, "Delhi scarves are famous, and there are few to whom they are not known. They are of cashmere cloth, or of net, embroidered with silks of various colours, and in all imaginable designs...The outline is traced carefully on the material to be embroidered, which is stretched upon a frame supported by trestles, as seen in the photograph. The worker is seated on the ground beside it, and fills in the pattern with floss silk by means of wooden needles, like those used in the embroidery of cashmere shawls.

Tailors at work

Tailors at work, Madras
Studio portrait of tailors at work taken by Nicholas and Curths in c. 1870, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. This image is from a series by Nicholas & Curths, shown at the Vienna Universal Exhibition of 1873. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions.

Rungrazes. (Dyers)--Photographer: Shepherd and Robertson Medium: Photographic print Date: 1863

Rungrazes. (Dyers)

Photograph of a group of Rangrez or dyer caste members at work in India, taken by Shepherd and Robertson in c.1863. This photograph is reproduced as illustration no.183 in volume IV of John Forbes Watson's The People of India (1869). The accompanying text states, "A few large pans for mixing the dyes, trestles for supporting the straining cloth, and a press are all that are used in the simple operations of the craft...The craft is hereditary; and and the secrets of mixing colours, methods of extracting the dyes, of the use of mordants, and of producing every variety of tint that may be necessary, descend from father to son, and have perhaps been little changed in the course of ages...the colours produced by the Indian dyer are for the most part very pure and beautiful. They are of two kinds: one permanent, and used in fabrics which have to bear constant washing; the other fleeting, and intended for temporary use only. In the former catalogue are the yarns for weaving both silk and cotton cloths; in the latter, white cloths, such as muslin, turbans, scarves and the like, are dyed in the piece, to suit the taste of their possessors. Turbans and scarves, for instance, are dyed of the brightest and most delicate tints of scarlet, pink, rose colour, crimson, purple, yellow, orange, and green, by mixtures made from safflower, turmeric, madder, and indigo, &c...the permanence of the Indian dyes in all shades of madder and cochineal, combined with indigo and other colours, has always been remarkable. The garments woven from such dyed yarns are chiefly those worn by women, and have to undergo not only daily washing, but exposure to the sun in drying; yet the colour not only never fails, but seems to grow brighter and clearer from constant exposure."

Golas. Salt makers--Photographer: Shepherd and Robertson Medium: Photographic print Date: 1863

Golas. Salt makers

Photograph of Golas, salt makers, in Rajasthan in India, taken by Shepherd and Robertson in c.1863. This image shows a group of four men, three seated, one standing, gathered round a basket of salt. John Forbes Watson wrote in 'The People of India', 1869-72, Volume IV, in which this photograph was reproduced, "The Golahs are a low class caste or tribe of Hindoos, but by no means one of the outcast tribes...the Golahs are professional salt makers, while they are also general cultivators; for it is only in the hottest weather that they can carry out their work as salt makers...In domestic customs and religion, the Golahs do not differ from the Jats or Goojurs in any remarkable degree...Their women are not secluded, and assist their families both in field labour and salt making. Baskets of salt are shown in the photograph, as also the strong hoe with which the salt earth is dug out....The Golahs are considered a gentle, honest class, and no habitual crime is attributed to them. As a rule they are very industrious, and are not migratory or unsettled..."

Moulvies [Muslim lawyers, Delhi]--Photographer: Shepherd and Robertson Medium: Photographic print Date: 1863

Moulvies [Muslim lawyers, Delhi]

Photograph of 'moulvies', Muslim lawyers, at Delhi in India, taken by Shepherd and Robertson in c.1863. This image of three seated men in discussion, surrounded by books, is reproduced as illustration no.198 in volume IV of John Forbes Watson's 'The People of India' (1869). The accompanying text states, "The photograph represents three doctors of Mahomedan law, or Moulvees, in discussion, perhaps on some knotty point in the text, on which the figure on the left has placed his hand, while the other two are listening to what he has to say. They form a very characteristic group of a class of learned men, who are perhaps decreasing under lack of patronage and exercise for their talents and knowledge...however, Mahomedan law still occupies a prominent place, and all property belonging to Mahomedans is inherited, divided, or litigated, under that law. Thus marriage settlements are drawn up by Moulvees, and the separate shares of widows, sons, and daughters, of all families of Mahomedans are defined by them. Wills are written by them, and conveyances and deeds in special cases; in short the civil law business of the Mahomedan people of India is in their hands. English judges are supposed to be conversant with Mahomedan law; but there are many points in which the general direction of a competant law officer is needful, and a Moulvee who has passed a prescribed examination is attached to every civil court."

Studio portrait of three Camatti women of the mason caste.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1860

Studio portrait of three Camatti women of the mason caste.

A Studio portrait of three Camatti women of the mason caste, taken by an unknown photographer in the 1860s. This is one of a series of photographs from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections commissioned by the Government of India in the 19th century in order to gather information about the different racial groups on the sub-continent. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Ethnographical prints were produced by large photographic firms operating in India as well as by smaller or temporary studios to meet European demands for souvenirs from the East.

Dubgur caste making pots---Photographer: Narayen, Shivashanker Medium: Photographic print Date: 1870

Dubgurs at work, Surat

Photograph of a group of men from the Dubgur caste making pots, at Surat in Gujarat, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1870, from the Archaeological Survey of India. Unglazed terracotta or earthenware pots would be used for storage of grain, spices or pickles. Vessels are also made for transporting and storing water. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by John Forbes Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875.

Photograph of two zardozis (gold lace makers) at Delhi in India, taken by Shepherd & Robertson in c. 1863,

Zunlozis, Gold lace makers, Delhi

This image is reproduced in 'The People of India', vol IV, (no. 187). The accompanying text states "The photograph shows a man at work, with his assistant, who may be required occasionally, but who for the present is looking on. The workman is seated on a rude stool, which has a rest for his right hand. The treadles of his simple loom, worked by his feet, are seen below, and the cross pieces above are the heddles and strings which hold his materials for the pattern he is working, and which is effected by skilful manipulation...Thus are woven some of the most wonderful and beautiful fabrics in the world. Tissues of gold and silver, plain and figured, with and without a mixture of silk or cotton in flowers and patterns; gold and silver tissue lace of all breadths and patterns, used for trimming scarves, and for bridal dresses; larger scarves of muslin and tissue combined, as those of Benares; and that wonderful cloth of gold called kumkhab or kincob, which is without parallel in the ornamental manufactures of the world. All these are comparatively little known as yet in Europe; but in the various International Exhibitions in England and France, specimens have been exhibited, which have excited alike wonder and admiration." It was held that metal threads from India were less likely to tarnish than similar products from other sources.

Photograph of a gold puggree border weaver at work in India, taken by Shivashankar Narayan in c. 1873

Gold puggree border weaver
This image shows a craftsman weaving the border of a puggree, an expensive turban, made of gold thread; thread which has been mixed with gold wire made from gold leaf melted onto silver bars and forced through small holes in a steel plate to form very fine gauge wires. Metal threads from India were considered less likely to tarnish than products from other sources. The pulleys of the narrow loom pictured are affixed to the wall opposite the weaver and also to the ceiling of the small workshop and there appear to be regimental badges attached to the wall. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions.

Women preparing cowdung cakes for fuel, Ahmadabad--Photographer: Narayen, Shivashanker Medium: Photographic print Date: 1870

Women preparing cowdung cakes for fuel, Ahmadabad
Photograph of two women fashioning cow dung into flat cakes at Ahmadabad in Gujarat, taken by Shivashanker Narayen in c. 1870, from the Archaeological Survey of India. Narayen contributed to the book 'The People of India', published by the India Museum in 1868-75. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. Cow dung is collected and made into flat round 'patties' which are dried on walls and roofs and then sold as fuel and used extensively on cooking fires and for heating. It has many other uses, including fertiliser and as a flooring material when mixed with mud and water

William Johnson, Ghur-Baree (Householding) Gosaees, Bombay, 1850s

Portrait of two people

Dyers at work, Western India--Photographer: Narayen, Shivashanker Medium: Photographic print Date: 1873

Dyers at work, Western India

photograph of copper and iron mining scenes at Alwar in Rajasthan, taken by Thomas Cadell in c. 1873,

Copper and iron mining scenes, Alwar
This image, possibly of the entrance to the Dareeba copper mine, is one of a series of photographs shown at the Vienna Exhibition of the same year and mentioned in the exhibition catalogue by John Forbes Watson. After photography was introduced into India in the 1840s it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly as a means to record the vast diversity of people and their dress, manners, trades, customs and religions. The first official attempt to create a comprehensive record of Indian types was the 'The People of India'; an ethnographical survey edited by J.F.Watson and John William Kaye, and published in eight volumes from 1868 to1875.

A student of the Hindu College.Artist: Eden, Emily Medium: Lithograph Date: 1844

A young Native of Rank at Calcutta, a student of the Hindu College. A little Mussulman girl
This lithograph is taken from plate 18 of Emily Eden's 'Portraits of the Princes and People of India'. Eden described the image on the left as one of "a favourite and successful young student at the Hindoo College, in Calcutta, where scholars acquire a very perfect knowledge of English, and have a familiarity with the best English writers which might shame many of our own schools. The Hindoo youths have an extraordinary aptness and precocity as scholars, and their exhibitions are very interesting and gratifying. This young student, who was the son of a native gentleman of rank in Calcutta, recited English poetry with particular grace and propriety




HORSE SHOE MAKER


Ice cream was invented in China around 2000BC
when the Chinese packed a soft milk and rice mixture
in the snow.
In the Persian Empire, people would pour grape juice concentrate over snow - in a bowl - and eat this as a treat. In particular this was consumed when the weather was hot. Either snow would be saved in the cool-keeping underground chambers known as "yakhchal" or taken from fresh snow that may still have remained at the top of the mountains
Persian faloodeh.
In 400 BC, the Persians went further and invented a special chilled food, made of rose water and vermicelli which was served to royalty during summers. The ice was mixed with saffron, fruits, and various other flavours.
The Roman Emperor Nero (37–68) had ice brought from the mountains and combined with fruit toppings. These were some early chilled delicacies

..Arabs were the first to use milk as a major ingredient in its production. As early as the 10th century, ice cream was widespread amongst many of the Arab world's major cities

Mughal emperors used relays of horsemen to bring ice from the Hindu Kush toDelhi, where it was used in fruit sorbets

Ice cream was introduced to the United States by Quaker colonists who brought their ice cream recipes with them

In 1843, Nancy Johnson of Philadelphia was issued the first U.S. patent for a small-scale handcranked ice cream freezer

vintage Bombay icecream outlets:-

Parsi Dairy[Parsi Dairy Farm’s creamy kulfi]The Mumbai institution has been serving out slices of the mouth-watering milk preparation since 1928 and its list of clients includes the Indian Railways and the Taj Group of Hotels
Parsi Dairy Farm
261-62, Shamaldas Gandhi Marg (Princess Street) (022-2201-3633).
Malai and fresh fruit kulfis, Rs 24 per slice; Masala kulfi Rs 25 per slice.

K Rustom’s
For over five decades, this Parsi-owned Churchgate institution has been serving delicious, moderately priced ice cream. Where else do you get a scoop of pineapple ice cream in a cone for Rs 15? The low prices are a commitment to the vision of the man who started the establishment. He is said to have been a socialist who believed in ice cream for the masses.Rustom’s rundown looks haven’t deterred its legions of fans, who throng the place every evening to wolf down its range of fruit squashes, ice creams sandwiched between wafer biscuits, and the large selection of ice creams, including the seasonal favourite, fresh mango
K Rustom’s Veer Nariman Road, near Brabourne Stadium, Churchgate (022-2282-1768).
dinshaws

Dairy Foods Limited.
With Dinshaw's, a brand and dinshaw ice cream founded by Dinshaw Rana in the 1920s;in Bombay
ICE CREAM COMPANIES WHICH STARTED AFTER 1950:-


Kwalllogo.gif
Kwality, the original Indian company, was founded in 1956, and was the first in the region to import machinery for the mass production and sale of ice cream on a commercial scale.
SONIA GANDHI EATING KWALITY ICE 'D'REAM

In 1995, in view of the growth potential of the frozen confections market, Kwality entered into an agreement with Lever


{Ranchod, who ran a one-man show, and, with a hand-cranked machine, started a small retail outlet in 1926. What was started in 1907 by Vadilal Gandhi has now turned out to be third-largest ice-cream brand in India,}

Brand Vadilal firmly established itself in the early 1960s. With the entry of Vadilal’s grandsons, the Gandhi family decided to ramp up operations and incorporated the company in 1961. Before introducing automatic machines around 1960,

Gandhi family used to manufacture ice cream in wooden drums called Kothis--. [hand-cranked ice cream,]


The first emu cars for the erstwhile BB & CI Railway (now WR) being unloaded from a ship around 1925.




THE FIRST ELECTRIC RAILWAY ENGINE GETTING OFF LOADED FROM SHIP 1925





Picture at left shows H.E. the Governor making a speech on the occasion, while the pic on the right shows the inaugural train at Bombay VT



Bombay Cavalry AT ANGLO PERSIAN WAR 1856-1857 AT KOOSHAB





THE PERSIAN WAR .THE CHARGE OF THE BOMBAY CAVALRY AT THE BATTLE OF KOOSHAB


ORIGINS

In the context of the Great Game — the Anglo-Russian contest for influence in Central Asia — the British wished for Afghanistan to remain an independent country friendly to Britain as a buffer against Russian expansion towards India. They opposed an extension of Persian influence in Afghanistan because of the perception that Persia was unduly influenced by the Russians. The Persians had repeatedly attempted to acquire Herat by force, most recently in 1838 and 1852; both times British opposition had convinced them to back down prior to war. They made a fresh attempt in 1856, and succeeded in taking the city on 25 October, with Russian encouragement and in violation of the existing Anglo-Persian treaty. In response, the British Governor-General in India, acting on orders from London, declared war on 1 November.

Koosh-Ab

After the arrival of the C-in-C, the force advanced inland and defeated the Persian field army at Koosh-Ab on 8 February 1857. The Poona Horse carries a Standard surmounted by a silver hand and bearing a Persian inscription captured at Koosh-Ab, in commemoration of the brilliant charge of the 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry which broke into enemy infantry and decided the fate of the day. The honour was awarded vide GOGG 1306 of 1858 and spelling changed from Kooshab vide Gazette of India No 1079 of 1910.

5th Bombay Cavalry (Sind Horse). ~1895







































Village of Walkeshwar, Malabar Point, Bombay



[Indian theatrical group, Bombay.--19 TH CENTURY-(MALES DRESSED AS FEMALES)

[Indian theatrical group, Bombay.]

Scene in Bombay-PALANQUIN [PALKHI]WAS ONE OF THE MAIN MODE OF TRANSPORT





Studio portrait of three Shenoy Bhatias, Bombay.





Great Tree, Waee [Wai] near Mahableshwar, Bombay. Covers 5 acres of ground.





Matheran.




A photograph of a view of Matheran, near Bombay from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by an unknown photographer about 1855.The area around Matheran, a hill station is characterised by the Points, a series of rocky promontories overlooking the valleys below. In the 19th Century the British established a hill station here as a cool retreat from the heat of Bombay in the spring and autumn months.




Stereo and type casting room ['Times of India'], - November 1898.--Photographer: E.O.S. and Company Medium: Photographic print Date: 1898



Stereo and type casting room ['Times of India'], - November 1898.


Print by E.O.S. and Company showing a line of type casting machines at the Times of India offices at Mumbai taken on the occasion of the newspaper's Diamond Jubilee (60 years), November 1898. The newspaper was established in the 1830s following Lord Metcalfe's Act of 1835 which removed restrictions on the liberty of the Indian press. On the 3rd November 1838 the 'Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce' was launched in bi-weekly editions, on Saturdays and Wednesdays. It contained news of Europe, America and the sub-continent and was conveyed between India and Europe via regular steam ships. From 1850 the paper appeared in daily editions and in 1861 the 'Bombay Times' became the 'Times of India'. By the end of the 19th century the paper employed 800 people and had a wide circulation in India and Europe. The company was owned by Kane, Bennett & Co. at this period and now it is called Bennett & Cole.




Machine room No. 1 ['Times of India'], - November 1898.--Photographer: E.O.S. and Company Medium: Photographic print Date: 1898

Machine room No. 1 ['Times of India'], - November 1898.


Print by E.O.S. and Company showing employees operating printing presses at the Times of India offices at Mumbai taken on the occasion of the newspaper's Diamond Jubilee (60 years), November 1898. The newspaper was established in the 1830s following Lord Metcalfe's Act of 1835 which removed restrictions on the liberty of the Indian press. On the 3rd November 1838 the 'Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce' was launched in bi-weekly editions, on Saturdays and Wednesdays. It contained news of Europe, America and the sub-continent and was conveyed between India and Europe via regular steam ships. From 1850 the paper appeared in daily editions and in 1861 the 'Bombay Times' became the 'Times of India'. By the end of the 19th century the paper employed 800 people and had a wide circulation in India and Europe.

The Church - Mahableshwar. November 1871'.--Artist: Lester, John Frederick (1825-1915) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1871

'The Church - Mahableshwar. November 1871'.

Water-colour painting of the church at Mahabaleshwar by John Frederick Lester (1825-1915) in November 1871. This image is from an album of water-colours made between 1865 and 1877 in Kathiawar, Bombay, Poona, Mahabaleshwar and Savantvadi State.
Mahabaleshwar is a popular hill station situated at a height of 1372 metres in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra, western India. It is one of the wettest places in the mountains as it receives heavy rainfall in the monsoon season. This area was made an official British sanatorium in 1828 and became a popular retreat for Europeans escaping the heat of Bombay (Mumbai) and Poona (Pune). Mahabaleshwar's famous ‘points’ offer breathtaking views of mountains covered with evergreen forests and fertile valleys.




General Manager's room ['Times of India'],AND THE HAND PULLED/OPERATED FAN/PUNKAH - November 1898.--Photographer: E.O.S. and Company Medium: Photographic print Date: 1898

General Manager's room ['Times of India'], - November 1898.








{HAND PULLED PUNKAH [FAN]; USED BEFORE ELECTRIC FAN WAS MADE SEEN ;ALSO KEROSENE LIGHTS HANGING DOWN;AND TYPICAL FURNITURE OF 1898}
rint by E.O.S. and Company showing the general manager's room at the Times of India newspaper at Mumbai taken on the occasion of the newspaper's Diamond Jubilee (60 years), November 1898. The newspaper was established in the 1830s following Lord Metcalfe's Act of 1835 which removed restrictions on the liberty of the Indian press. On the 3rd November 1838 the 'Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce' was launched in bi-weekly editions, on Saturdays and Wednesdays. It contained news of Europe, America and the sub-continent and was conveyed between India and Europe via regular steam ships. From 1850 the paper appeared in daily editions and in 1861 the 'Bombay Times' became the 'Times of India'. By the end of the 19th century the paper employed 800 people and had a wide circulation in India and Europe. The company was owned by Kane, Bennett & Co. at this period.
OTHER MODELS OF HAND PULLED PUNAHS:-





HAND PULLED/OPERATED FAN/PUKAH
The Punkah Wallah was in charge of the punkah. Punkahs were cooling wafters made by hanging a huge flap of cloth across a room on a wooden frame, which was moved backwards and forwards – or to-and-fro depending on one’s mood – to create a cooling draught of air. ‘Punkah’ is derived from a Sanskrit word for ‘wing’ and the huge flaps not only looked like giant wings, but also moved the airs as do wings.
Punkah Wallahs sat on the floor and pulled a rope attached to the punkah’s frame to create cool breezes. Silent in operation, they nonetheless contributed critically to human comfort in many an office where the merciless sun sought to frazzle and dehydrate its occupants. Underpaid, and not required to produce much in the way of effort, nevertheless they were indispensable, although not irreplaceable. A good Punkah Wallah was punctual, silent, continuously effective, trustworthy, and discreet, a necessary adjunct for someone who heard every detail of business or military planning.
The advent of electricity to remote places and the development of the electric Punkah wallah signalled the end of the road for these patient rope-tuggers, and another occupation slipped into the seldom opened pages of history to be forgotten by all save those who have been the direct beneficiaries of their services.

PHOTO OF ANOTHER HAND PULLED PUNKAH FROM AN OLD BRITISH BUNGALOW
[British+Raj+(1904+-+1906)+(10).jpg]


BOMBAY AND THE FIRST

FILM

SHOW IN INDIA 1896


In 1896, India was first exposed to motion pictures when the Lumiere Brothers' Chinematographe showed six soundless short films on July 7 in Bombay.

BOMBAY WATSON HOTEL 1886-IN THIS HOTEL THE FIRST FILM WAS SHOWN
[Watson's Hotel, currently known as the Esplanade Mansion, is India's oldest surviving cast iron building. It is located in the Kala Ghoda area of Mumbai (Bombay). Named after its original owner, John Watson, the building was fabricated in England and constructed on site between 1860 and 1863. (Wikipedia)]

Among the hotel's notable guests was Mark Twain, who wrote about the city's crows he saw outside his balcony in Following the Equator. It was also the first place in India to screen the Lumière Brothers' Cinematographe invention in 1896. However this was witnessed only by Europeans.
A popular myth surround the hotel was that the staff at Watson's Hotel denied Indian industrialist Jamsetji Tata
access to the hotel. In retaliation he opened the Taj Hotel,
a hotel that stands near the Gateway of India, in 1903. However, author and historian Sharada Dwived idebunks this legend. She points out a lack of evidence to prove that Tata was a man of vengeance.
On 13 June 2010, the Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC) gave its approval for the 130-year-old structure to be restored. The restoration work will be carried out by the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA).

The Lumière Brothers
Les frères Lumière
Auguste Lumière (left) and Louis Lumière (right)
Place of birthBesançon, France
AugusteAuguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière
October 19, 1862
April 10, 1954 (aged 91) (Lyon, France)
LouisLouis Jean Lumière
October 5, 1864
June 6, 1948 (aged 83) (Bandol, French Riviera)
OccupationFilmmakers
EducationLa Martiniere Lyon
ParentsClaude-Antoine Lumière (1840–1895)
AwardsElliott Cresson Medal (1909)


Fratelli Lumiere.jpg





















Bombay(Mumbai) Esplanade 1905

Watson's Hotel is located in Mumbai
Watson's hotel, now known as Esplanade Mansions at Kala Ghoda
Coordinates18.9283°N 72.8311°E
Structural systemCast iron
TownMumbai
CountryIndia
ClientJohn Watson
Started1867
Completed1869
ArchitectRowland Mason Ordish
EngineerRowland Mason Ordish

Oldest photographs in the world1826

Edison kinetoscope films 1894 -1896


The Lumiere Brothers' - First films (1895)


The world's first film poster, for 1895's L'Arroseur Arrosé

l'arroseur arrosé:-FILM

Cinematographe Lumière. Museu del Cinema[FILM PROJECTOR
1896]
The Frenchman Louis Lumiere is often credited as inventing the first motion picture camera in 1895. But in truth, several others had made similar inventions around the same time as Lumiere. What Lumiere invented was a portable motion-picture camera, film processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe, three functions covered in one invention.
In 1895, Lumiere and his brother were the first to present projected, moving, photographic, pictures to a paying audience of more that one person.

Later in 1896, Edison showed his improved Vitascope projector and it was the first commercially, successful, projector in the U.S..
Advertisement for the Vitascope motion picture projector


British Raj: The life of a British Army officer during the early days of British government rule in India, which was between 1858 and 1947







The newlyweds going on a honeymoon -- G.F. Atkinson, C 1850.
The newlyweds going on a honeymoon— G.F. Atkinson, C 1850



.
The newlyweds going on a honeymoon -- G.F. Atkinson, C 1850.












BRITISH SOLDIERS ON TRAM -INDIA 1900'S

BRITISH SOLDIERS OGLING? THE VERY RARE ENGLISH WOMAN IN INDIA-AT THE BAND STAND -1850'S
BAND STAND WAS THE PLACE OF SOCIAL GATHERING IN 1800 TO THE 1910S ;WHEN FIRST CINEMA AND RADIO FOLLOWED BY OTHER ENTERTAINMENTS BECAME COMMON .AT THE BAND STAND PEOPLE COULD ENJOY THE FREE ARMY BANDS




BELOW:-Civilian officer of the Bombay Staff Corps is brought a letter by a messenger barked at by his dog - while his servant provides a pot of tea Date: 1888.



















Looting after winning the 'mutiny 1856




















Rival candidates at Calcutta
—James Moffat C. 1800.



LUXURIOUS LIFE OF AN ENGLISH MAN IN INDIA [CAN SEE A HAND PULLED PUNKAH-(FAN)ABOVE THE DINING TABLE

Photo+UK+Couple+%2526+INDIAN+Men+POLICE++India+c1900s+PEON
Add caption



British+Family+in+India+in+front+of+their+House+-+1875
BRITISH FAMILY IN FRONT OF THEIR HOUSE 1875



BRITISH COUPLE 1900 WITH PEONS AND POLICE MEN

BRITISH RULERS IN HAND PULLED RICKSHAWS -AGRA 1902

BRITISH SOLDIERS WITH INDIAN SERVANTS 1887



Superb+CAB+Photo+HORSE+-+INDIA+-+Bourne+%2526+Shepherd+1882








BRITISH GET TOGETHER 1894 GWALIOR




WAITING FOR TRAIN AT THE RAILWAY STATION -1860'S INDIA






INDIAN SOLDIERS 1800'S

















A DANCER PERFORMS IN FRONT OF BOMBAY STAFF... BRITISH















The Municipal Offices and Victoria Terminus, Bombay, India, late 19th century.[BEFORE CARS WERE MADE]




ROAD SIDE BARBER 19 TH CENTURY


Boy and ayah" (ayah = carer)



COLONIAL ERA-DATE 1876

  • Assamese Tea Coolies Being Paid by European Man In Entranceway of Pole Structure with Thatch Roof


    The release of atomic energy has not created a new problem. It has merely made more urgent the necessity of solving an existing one.
    [URL="http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins108423.html"]Albert Einstein[/URL]




  • bottles of Bee-yotch on ice!

  • COLONIAL ERA-BRITISH INDIA












  • Punka boy, Gin & Madeira drinks, Sahibs relaxing with dogs on a dog day.


    ENGLISH SOLDIER'S CANTEEN-AROUND 1900

    [India+1910_15.jpg]


    BRITISH BUNGALOW WITH SERVANTS-1870S