Thursday, September 29, 2011

Finder takes 80% AND (colonial) thief takes 20% . none for the owner(India under slave/colonial rule)---NEWS OFWW II shipwreck found, with £155m treasure on board




Largest amount of precious metal ever found at sea; British vessel SS Gairsoppa was returning fromIndia in 1941 when she was torpedoed by a Nazi U-boat

 Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome! Freakin' Awesome!
Freakin' Awesome!


London A shipwreck holding silver worth £150million has been discovered in the Atlantic — the largest amount of precious metal ever found at sea. About 200 tons of the bullion sank off Ireland with British cargo steamer the SS Gairsoppa when it was hit by a German torpedo in 1941.

But it has now been found by US treasure hunters hired by UK Department for Transport.They will now attempt to salvage the silver and will have to hand 20% of its value to the British Treasury.

Treasure hunter: The RV Odyssey Explorer, bristling with high-tech equipment, which went looking for and found the wreck of the Gairsoppa 
The US team lowered a robot 2.9 miles to the seabed and it found a gaping hole in the side of the ship where the torpedo had struck 70 years ago.

Greg Stemm, chief executive of underwater archaeology and salvage firm Odyssey Marine Exploration, said: “We were fortunate to find the shipwreck sitting upright, with the holds open and easily accessible. “This should enable to us to unload cargo through the hatches, as would happen with a ship alongside a cargo terminal.”

Valued then at 600,000 pounds, the silver today is worth about £150million, which would make it history's largest recovery of precious metals lost at sea, Odyssey said. 

After a competitive tender process the British government awarded Odyssey an exclusive salvage contract for the cargo, and under the agreement Odyssey will retain 80 percent of the silver bullion salvaged from the wreck. 

In May 2007, Odyssey announced it had found half a million silver coins and hundreds of gold objects from a ship they code-named the "Black Swan," which went down in 1804 off the Strait of Gibraltar. The find is being contested by Spain, which claims the trove.  

  Sunken Treasure  

Hoard: The ship, which was torpedoed after breaking away from a convoy, was carrying silver 
•  The 125-metre Gairsoppa had been sailing from India back to Liverpool in February 1941 bearing a cargo of silver, pig iron and tea, and was in a convoy of ships when a storm struck. 

•  Running low on fuel, the Gairsoppa broke off from the convoy and set a course for Galway, Ireland. 

•  It was hit by a German torpedo in the contested waters of the North Atlantic 

•  Of the 85 people on board, only one survived

•  The Gairsoppa came to rest nearly 4,700 m below the surface. A previous effort to locate the shipwreck failed.


FindersKeepers titlecard.PNG
 Finders Keepers.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As late as the 1750s, India had an export surplus; its favourable trade balance was matched by bullion import, as the world had nothing else to offer India in return for its fine textiles. British colonialism reversed this process, first by monopolising trade and then — in the early 19th century — by demolishing Indian industry. During the period when British trade established supremacy, goods were exported by India but the bullion never reached the country. British merchants purchased goods in rupee receipts in India, and exchanged them abroad for bullion. Much before Dadabhai Naoroji and the so-called ‘modern nationalist’ school came up with a figure for India’s drain of wealth, Mughal chroniclers had put it at more than 100,000 million pound sterling per annum.

Dadabhai NAVROJIproved that the average annual income of an Indian was barely Rs 20. Examining the import and export figures for 37 years, he proved that India's exports exceeded its imports by Rs 50 crores (approximately $135 million) annually.

In fact, bullion owed to India helped finance England’s Industrial Revolution. Then, in order to flood Indian markets with European goods, India was de-industrialised. From being a supplier of luxury goods, it was turned into an exporter of raw material. Between 1820 and 1840, de-industrialisation closed down more than 12,000 markets, controlled and operated by peasants and small entrepreneurs in northern India

The ideological moorings of imperialism have been many. From liberal
tradition of orientalism to that of not so good utilitarianism. All
these affected the political as well as the economic fabric. The
imperial powers started as trading organisations and later developed
into full fledged political powers. This transformation was to a large
extent based on the control over resources. In India's context, this had
meant things like:

# Use of territorial revenue by British trading company as 'investment',
whereby during the eighteenth century, it would use the territorial
revenue of Bengal to buy goods from Bengal and export that to Europe,
and would show that this money was their 'investment' in India!

#Trade imbalance that had gradually transformed India from an exporting
country in goods like Cotton to that of an importing country of cotton.

#Transfer of wealth in form of invisibles eg. transfer of profit,
pensions, cost of maintenance of Office of Secy etc all these coming
from Indian revenue.

Destruction of handicraft industries (during the later eighteenth
century), when the industrial revolution had only just started~ and
perhaps the societies were poised in a balanced way. This is also
related to an important phenomena of "proto-industrialisation" and
"deindustrialisation".
# Destruction of technological industries like shipping in the early nineteenth century. Here it is interesting to note that shipping of India was not outdone by any Western technology, but by the non-technological political policies made in Britain. Scholars like Gunder Frank also puts the western superiority in areas like shipping only by 1840s. All these meant technological impoverishment in the long run
# The nature of this drain underwent a shift when the age of finance capitalism emerged. The most glaring example is that of railways. In the case, of railways the whole cost was put on India as guaranteed project. This meant that whether the project earned money or losses, it would be paid a guaranteed system by the Govt that protected the private investment. Consequently, this meant that the money for investment in projects like railways was basically extracted from India. If the investment in railways is neglected, then there was very little foreign investment during the whole period of imperialism
# Moreover, all this was not just a matter of drain, but also worked to serve the imperial political interests. Railways & Telegraph was used for suppression of revolts. Railways particularly was useful both for things like troop movement as well as penetration into areas and provinces of princely rulers, who were theoretically free. (at the time of independence, there were some 562 such independent states, that became part of the successor states) It was also useful for penetration of foreign goods, particularly textile into the hinterlands and also for transfer of raw materials from hinterland to the seaports for export to Britain.
# The drain also happened in terms of expenses on military. The costs of military expedition in far off lands- Middle East, Africa (like the Abyssinian & Sudan expeditons), Europe etc, which were basically British imperial wars, and had no relation to India were charged on Indian exchequer.
These areas were identified by the early Indian nationalists and much literature was written on it. It in some ways became an ideological issue, that received support from all spectrum of politics in India. This "Drain of Wealth Theory" gave a firm foundation to the anti-imperial struggle. In some ways, it meant that the struggle was not just political or even an issue of power, but of safeguarding of the basic interests of the country from an exploitative imperial power.
The people, among others, who actually theorised this were- Dada Bhai
Naoroji in his various monographs and particularly in "Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India", and RC Dutt in his "The Economic History of India", in two vol. Such a thing also received support of some Britishers like Digby.
In 1906, at the age of 80, Dadabhai was invited for a third time to be president of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta, 
and he helped to patch up a conflict between the moderates and the extremists.
 In his keynote speech he demanded "Swaraj" or Self-Rule from the British,
 which delighted the Congress attendees and the Indian public. 
He said "Be united, persevere, and achieve self-Government, so that the millions now perishing
 by poverty, famine, and plague may be saved, and India may once more occupy her proud 
position of yore among the greatest and civilized nations of the world"






indian poverty
INDIAN POVERTY 1941 AND FAMINE UNDER BRITISH RULE


WHEN INDIA WAS STARVING AND DYING BRITISH COLONIAL RULERS WERE TAKING SILVER OUT OF THE COUNTRY IN A HURRY FOR 2ND WORLD WAR!

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

More photos of Bombay

Approach of the Monsoon, Bombay Harbour[VIEW FROM

 MALABAR HILL OF BOMBAY]


Approach of the Monsoon, Bombay Harbour

        View of Bombay Harbour


View of Bombay Harbour

Panoramic view of Bombay taken from Chinchpoogly hill, Parel, looking towards Cumballa hill and Warli


Panoramic view of Bombay taken from Chinchpoogly hill, Parel, looking towards Cumballa hill and Warli


View of Bombay, from Malabar Hills, with the Island of Caranjah and part of the Indian Continent in the Distance

View of Bombay, from Malabar Hills, with the Island of Caranjah and part of the Indian Continent in the Distance











The Stranger's Lines, Esplanade, showing part of the old ramparts of the Fort, Bombay 

and guns 

The Stranger's Lines, Esplanade, showing part of the old ramparts of the Fort, Bombay.



   Bullock-drawn roller, Bombay

Bullock-drawn roller, Bombay

































View of Bombay from colaba island in 1773--Artist: Forbes, James Medium: Engraving Date: 1813-- THE FORT WALLS AND THE ST THOMAS CATHEDRAL CAN BE SEEN

View of Bombay in 1773


































'Bombay Esplanade from our(soldier's) Tents. March 1870'.[MALABAR HILL WITH JUST A FEW BUNGALOWS AND GOVERNOR'S BUNGALOW can be seen ]

Inscribed on reverse: 'Bombay Esplanade from our Tents. March 1870'.























Morning view from Calliann[KALYAN] near Bombay

Morning view from Calliann near Bombay


                           Khandalla, Bombay

Khandalla, Bombay Pres.

                View of Bombay Harbour. January 1870

View of Bombay Harbour. January 1870 1071





































            View of Bombay Green[ now known as  Horniman circle]

View of Bombay Green



































           The Reversing Station, Campoolee, Bombay

The Reversing Station, Campoolee, Bombay.


Matheran.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1855

Matheran.


'A Sketch in the suburbs of the City of Poonah. September 1871'.--Artist: Lester, John Frederick (1825-1915) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1871

'A Sketch in the suburbs of the City of Poonah. September 1871'.






































Callian,[KALYAN] Northern Concan--Lithographer: Ackermann, Rudolph (1764-1834) Medium: Lithograph Date: 1820

Callian, Northern Concan























The view shows the islands of Bombay, part of the village of Mazagaon, and the Mahratta mountains in the background. The top of Belvidere House and Cross Island are on the left; to the right is Fort George. Ships are pictured at anchor in the harbourView from Belmont 00008

This is plate 8 from James Wales' 'Bombay Views'. The series was painted for Sir Charles Malet (1752-1815), the British Resident of Poona, who Wales met in Bombay in 1791.
. Across the water is Chaul and the Kanheri.'


Fortress on a hill.--Artist: Johnson, John (c.1769-1846) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1795

f.15   Fortress on a hill.









































Bhore Ghauts.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1855[before railways were built]

Bhore Ghauts.

A photograph of a view of the Bhore Ghauts near Bombay from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by by an unknown photographer about 1855. The reversing station on the Bhore Ghat Incline under construction, with the hill known as the Duke's Nose in the distance. The idea of a railway to connect Bombay with Thane, Kalyan and with the Thal and Bhore Ghat inclines first occurred to Mr. George Clark, the Chief Engineer of the Bombay Government, during a visit to Bhandup in 1843. But it was not until 1856 that Bhore Ghat, 15.75 miles in length was begun under the direction of engineer William Frederick Faviell. The work was continued by Solomon Tredwell after Faviell's death in 1859. About 42,000 workers (peak of 1861) including many tribals, 32 different classes of artisans & labourers (10,822 drillers/miners, 2659 masons, buttiwalas to load & fire blasts, storekeepers, timekeepers, interpreters, filemen, platelayers, trumpeters for mustering people, thatchers, harness makers etc worked here. Coolies travelled on an average of 15-20 miles a day and carried an estimated 6,296,061 cubic yards of earthwork on heads.



Esplanade and Bandstand, Bombay.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1855

 photograph of the Esplanade and Bandstand, Bombay from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by an unknown photographer about 1855. After the fall of the Portuguese fort of Bassein in 1739, an Esplanade and parade ground was cleared from the walls of the Bombay fort almost upto present day Crawford Market. People sometimes drove around the esplanade in the evenings as a form of relaxation or simply sat around relaxing. In the early part of the 20th century, tents for showing films were pitched here.-


Esplanade and Bandstand, Bombay.












































Ceremony of admitting water to Victoria Dock by Lady Reay [Victoria Dock construction, Bombay].---Photographer: Taurines, E. Medium: Photographic print Date: 1888

On 21 February 1888, after work was completed on Victoria Dock, water was allowed for the first time through the sluices communicating with the Prince’s Dock. Lady Reay, in the presence of the Governor of Bombay Richard Temple, the Trustees of the Bombay Port and a few others opened the first sluice, and the dock was filled with water by the end of that month. The intention of the Trustees was to formally open the dock with some ceremony early in April when the direct entrance from the sea would be available, but the demand for dock accommodation became so urgent that in the early part of March of the same year, the first steamer, the St. Regulus, was accordingly admitted through the communications passage. Entrance via the sea-gates was made available on 3 April..


Ceremony of admitting water to Victoria Dock by Lady Reay [Victoria Dock construction, Bombay].

Church Gate Street of bombay fort , --(and Times of India office).Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1860

Church Gate Street, Bombay.


This view of Churchgate Street, now known as Vir Nariman Road, in the Fort area of Bombay was taken in the 1860s to form part of an album entitled 'Photographs of India and Overland Route'. Churchgate Street runs from Horniman Circle at the east end to what was originally named Marine Drive at the edge of the Back Bay. Churchgate Station, the old General Post Office (now the Telegraph Office) and the Cathedral Church of St Thomas, the oldest still-functioning structure in the city, are all located along its length. However, Churchgate Station and the Post Office were later additions to the street and would not have been in existence at the time of this photograph.

The Mazagaom Bunder, with a vessel stranded [Bombay].--Photographer: Scott, Charles Medium: Photographic print Date: 1850

hotograph of Mazagaon Bunder, Bombay from 'Views in the island of Bombay' by Charles Scott,1850s. In the 1770s since Bombay began to trade in cotton with China and exports of other goods from Bombay increased, the British decided to build a new dock at Mazagaon, which lay east of the main island of Bombay. The area developed due to the growth of trade and subsequent economic prosperity of the town. Land reclamation projects in the 19th century joint the islands making Mazagaon landlocked and losing its prosperity to neighbouring areas.


The Mazagaom Bunder, with a vessel stranded [Bombay].

View of Bombay', after the painting by Lambert & Scott. Mezzotint by Elisha Kirkall, c.1735. Printed for T. & J. Bowles. Presented by Sir George Birdwood.

'View of Bombay', after the painting by Lambert & Scott.  Mezzotint by Elisha Kirkall, c.1735.  Printed for T. & J. Bowles.  Presented by Sir George Birdwood.


Etcher: Kirkall, Elisha (c.1682-1742)
Medium: Mezzotint
Date: 1735


Mezzotint with etching of a view of Bombay by Elisha Kirkall dated c.1735 after the painting by George Lambert (1710-65) and Samuel Scott (1701/2-72). Inscribed on the front is: 'To the Honourable the Court of Directors of the United-Company of Merchants of England trading to the East-Indies this view of Bombay done after the Painting in the Court Room of the Company house in Leaden Hall Street is most humbly Dedicated by their Honours most obliged and most devoted Servant John Bowles.'


The area of Bombay was composed of seven islands separated by a marshy swamp and inhabited by Koli fisherman. Its deep natural harbour led the Portuguese settlers of the 16th century to name the settlement Bom Bahia 'the Good Bay'. The British Crown acquired the islands as part of the marriage dowry of Catherine of Braganza when she married Charles II in 1661. Bombay was then presented to the East India Company in 1668. The East India Company’s navy was founded at the beginning of the 18th century to protect shipping against pirates and the maritime Mahratta states. Ships were built both locally and in Britain and eventually the fleet was sufficiently powerful to be able to go into action anywhere between the Red Sea and China. The second governor of Bombay, Gerald Aungier offered inducements for skilled workers and traders to settle here and the town quickly developed into a thriving trading port and commercial centre

Khandalla on the Bhore Ghaut, Bombay.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1860

Khandalla on the Bhore Ghaut, Bombay.


his print was taken by an unknown photographer in the 1860s. It shows a view of Khandala, a small hill station in the state of Maharashtra,

Bombay Harbor with guns from Apollo Bunder.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1855

Bombay Harbour from Apollo Bunder.




A photograph of a view of Bombay Harbour from Appolo Bundar from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by an unknown photographer about 1855.The East India Company’s navy was founded at the beginning of the 18th Century to protect shipping against pirates and the maritime Mahratta states. Ships were built in Britain and locally and eventually the fleet was sufficiently powerful to be able to go into action anywhere between the Red Sea and China.
















Angria's Colaba.-Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1855

A photograph of the Colaba Fort in Bombay from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by an unknown photographer about 1855. Colaba Fort in what is the Konkan region is nine hundred feet long and three hundred and fifty feet wide and was built by Shivaji Maharaj in 1680. Of the two 'dwars' or gates, the Mahadarwaja to the east is decorated with tigers, elephants, and peacocks. At high tide the Fort is inaccessible, while at low tide one can walk across to it.
Angria's Colaba.

Marine Battalion, Esplanade.-BOMBAY-Artist: Gonsalves, Jose M. (fl. 1826-c.1842) Medium: Lithograph Date: 1826

Marine Battalion, Esplanade.


Lithograph of the Marine Battalion at the Esplanade by Jose M. Gonsalves (fl. 1826-c.1842). Plate 4 from his 'Lithographic Views of Bombay' published in Bombay in 1826. Gonsalves, thought to be of Goan origin, was one of the first artists to practice lithography in Bombay and specialised in topographical views of the city. In 1772, the English feared an attack on Bombay by the French and cleared a semi-circular area of land around the fort to provide a clear line of fire. This area was known as the Esplanade. In the southern section of this area, there was a parade ground known as Marine Lines. This view shows a battalion soldiers on parade with military bungalows in the background.




BOMBAY-Back Bay in 1861.-Photographer: Johnson, William Medium: Photographic print Date: 1861

Back Bay in 1861.

Photograph taken by William Johnson in 1861, of Back Bay in Bombay (Mumbai), Maharashtra, from an album of 40 albumen prints taken in the 1860s. The busy port and industrial hub of Bombay is the capital of Maharashtra. During British rule, it was the administrative capital of the Bombay Presidency. Extending over a peninsula into the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India, Bombay prospered with maritime trade and became the chief commercial centre of the Arabian Sea. Originally a collection of fishing villages of the Koli community built on seven islands, Bombay was by the 14th century controlled by the Gujarat Sultanate who ceded it to the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1661 it was part of the dowry brought to Charles II of England when he married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. In the 19th century, Bombay burgeoned with economic activity and grew huge. Land reclamation along Back Bay provided for further development. Back Bay is located at the southeast tip of Bombay, near the fort and central district. In this view local craft are beached in the foreground.




Aquatinter: Clark, J. (fl.1789-1834)
Medium: Aquatint, coloured
Date: 1813

Coloured aquatint of the Fleet under Convoy of H. M.'s Ship 'Chiffone' Captain Wainwright leaving Bombay in Maharashtra by J. Clark (fl.1789-1834) after an original drawing of September 14th 1809 by Robert Temple (fl.early 1800) of the H. M. 65th Regiment and published in London in 1813.

In 1674, Bombay replaced Surat as the headquarters of the English East Company in India. The esplanade, seen in the foreground of this view, provided a clear range of fire from the fort and was added in the 1770s to protect the city from the French.



Back Bay, Bombay.--Photographer: Johnson and Henderson Medium: Photographic print Date: 1855

Back Bay, Bombay.

A photograph of the Back Bay in Bombay from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by Johnson & Henderson about 1855. Originally, Bombay was composed of seven islands separated by a marshy swamp. It’s deep natural harbour led the Portuguese settlers of the 16th Century to call it Bom Bahia (the Good Bay). The British Crown acquired the islands in 1661when Catherine of Braganza married Charles II, as part of her marriage dowry. It was then presented to the East India Company in 1668. The second governor, Gerald Aungier, developed Bombay into a trading port and centre for commerce and inducements were offered to skilled workers and traders to move here. Back Bay is located on the southeast tip of the island near the fort, the central business district and the area known as Colaba.The Back Bay Reclamation Project was originally proposed in 1865, started in 1913, sidelined by government regulations until 1922, abandoned in 1930, proposed again in 1950 and finally completed in 1970.


Bombay Green of 1862.

Bombay Green of 1862.















































Thana Fort on the Island of Salsette seen from the Esplanade. Camels and European figures in the foreground Artist: Heen, A. van der (fl. 1782) Medium: Wash Date: 1752

Thana Fort on the Island of Salsette seen from the Esplanade. Camels and European figures in the foreground

Wash drawing by A. van der Heen (fl. 1782) of Thana Fort on the Island of Salsette near Bombay in Maharashtra, seen from the Esplanade, with camels and European figures in the foreground, dated 1782. The image is inscribed on the back in ink: 'Tanah fort taken from the Esplanade. A. van der Heen fecit, 1782.'



View Of Bombay, From Mazagon Hill.--Artist: Gonsalves, Jose M. (fl. 1826--c. 1842) Medium: Lithograph, coloured Date: 1833

View Of Bombay, From Mazagon Hill.


Mazagon hill was an outlying suburb of Bombay and became a fashionable place to live in the 18th century. Bungalows and plantation houses were built by the British and more affluent Indians moving out of the crowded fort area. During the 19th century, Mazagon experienced a decline as residents moved into the fashionable Bycullah area nearby. The docks were reclaimed towards the end of the century and Mazagon was left landlocked; eventually the fumes from the developing mills drove out any remaining affluent residents.


Hill Fort, Poorandhur--Artist: Nash, Alexander (fl. 1834-1846) Medium: Pencil on paper Date: 1844

Hill Fort, Poorandhur
Pencil drawing of Purandhar Fort by Alexander Nash (fl. 1834-1846) between 1844 and 1845


View from Sion Fort --Artist: Wales, James (1747-1795) Medium: Etching, coloured Date: 1800

View from Sion Fort 00011

From the vantage of Sion fort, the view opens out to the island of Mahim, which was occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century. In the 1670s the convent of Our Lady of Salvation was built on the island, and a Franciscan church constructed in what is now Dadar. In the 17th century, the Englishman John Fryer wrote of a customs house and a guard house on the island.


Street scene in the Fort area, Bombay.--Photographer: Bourne and Shepherd Medium: Photographic print Date: 1870

Street scene in the Fort area, Bombay.
This view is of a street composed of western Indian wooden architecture in a thriving bazaar



View from the Esplanade of Fort George Bombay towards Mazagon'--Date: 1828

Artist: Miller, William (1795-1836) Medium: Wash

Inscribed on reverse: ' View from the Esplanade of Fort George Bombay towards Mazagon'

showing the view from Fort George in Bombay towards Mazagaon by William Miller (1795-1836) c.1828. Inscribed on reverse: 'View from the Esplenade of Fort George Bombay towards Mazagon'.



Part of the Fort and fort wall, Bombay, 1863.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1863

Part of the Fort, Bombay, 1863.

Photograph taken shortly before the demolition of the rampart and moat of the Fort in Bombay (Mumbai), Maharashtra, by an unknown photographer, from an album of 40 prints of the 1860s. The busy port and industrial hub of Bombay is the capital of Maharashtra. During British rule, it was the administrative capital of the Bombay Presidency. Extending over a peninsula into the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India, Bombay prospered with maritime trade and became the chief commercial centre of the Arabian Sea. Originally a collection of fishing villages of the Koli communitybuilt on seven islands, Bombay was by the 14th century controlled by the Gujarat Sultanate who ceded it to the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1661 it passed to the English as part of the dowry brought to Charles II by the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. The British built up fortifications around Bombay harbour in the 17th century around the original Portuguese settlement. In the 1760s the fortifications were enhanced as the British were engaged in war with France in both Europe and India. By the 19th century the British had established control over India and the fort walls were torn down and the area converted into the central district of Bombay city.



Part of the Fort, Bombay in 1864.--Photographer: Unknown Medium: Photographic print Date: 1864

Part of the Fort, Bombay in 1864.

Photograph with a view looking towards a street of private houses at the Fort perimeter, after the removal of the ramparts, in Bombay (Mumbai), Maharashtra, taken by an unknown photographer, from an album of 40 prints of the 1860s. The busy port and industrial hub of Bombay is the capital of Maharashtra. During British rule, it was the administrative capital of the Bombay Presidency. Extending over a peninsula into the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India, Bombay prospered with maritime trade and became the chief commercial centre of the Arabian Sea. Originally a collection of fishing villages of the Koli communitybuilt on seven islands,

Bombay was by the 14th century controlled by the Gujarat Sultanate who ceded it to the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1661 it passed to the English as part of the dowry brought to Charles II by the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. The British built up fortifications around Bombay harbour in the 17th century around the original Portuguese settlement. In the 1760s the fortifications were enhanced as the British were engaged in war with France in both Europe and India. By the 19th century the British had established control over India and the fort walls were torn down and the area converted into the central district of Bombay city.



Street in Bombay Fort.--Date: 1860--Photographer: Unknown

Street in Bombay Fort. 9378

Photograph of a street in the Fort area of Bombay (Mumbai), Maharashtra, by an unknown photographer, from an album of 40 prints taken in the 1860s. Bombay, one of the key cities of India, is a major port, busy manufacturing centre and capital of Maharashtra. During British rule, it was the administrative capital of the Bombay Presidency. It extends over a peninsula jutting into the Arabian Sea on the west coast of India. Originally a collection of fishing villages of the Koli community built on seven islands, Bombay was by the 14th century controlled by the Gujarat Sultanate who ceded it to the Portuguese in the 16th century. In 1661 it was part of the dowry brought to Charles II of England when he married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza. The British built up fortifications around Bombay harbour in the 17th century around the original Portuguese settlement. In the 1760s the fortifications were enhanced as the British were engaged in war with France in both Europe and India. By the 19th century the British had established control over India and the fort walls were torn down and the area converted into the central district of Bombay city.



The Fort, Bombay, Harbour face wall,- 1863.--Date: 1863--Photographer: Unknown

The Fort, Bombay, Harbour face, 1863.











GUNS POINTING DOWN INTO MOAT


North-west view of the fort of Bombay--Date: 1826--Artist: Westall, william (1781-1850)

North-west view of the fort of Bombay




This is plate 17 from Robert Melville Grindlay's 'Scenery, Costumes and Architecture chiefly on the Western Side of India'. Grindlay (1786-1877) was only 17 when he arrived in India in 1803. He served with the Bombay Native Infantry from 1804 to 1820 and during this period made a large collection of sketches and drawings.

Referring to the fort of Bombay, Grindlay wrote: "The fortifications which were originally commenced by the Portuguese, and subsequently improved by the English, though very strong particularly towards the sea, are too extensive, and require a very large garrison. That part represented in the plate is the north-west extremity, and exhibits a remarkable accumulation of threatening embrasures, commanding the approach from the northern part of the island".

By the middle of the 18th century, the fort area had became too congested and setllements moved outside its walls, with the governor moving in 1750 to Parel. Much of the area was gutted in the great fire of 1803, the year Grindlay arrived.


Interior of Fort,--Date: 1855-- Bombay.-[before fort walls removed] Also Notes on the life inside Bombay fort

A photograph of the interior of the Fort, Bombay from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by an unknown photographer about 1855. 'By the end of the 17th century, Bombay had developed into an important local port. In 1715 Charles Boone became the Governor of Bombay. He implemented Aungier's plans for the fortification of the island, and had walls built from Dongri in the north to Mendham's point in the south. He established a force of Marines and constructed St. Thomas' Church, within the fort'. In a count made in 1794, it was found that there were 1000 houses inside the fort walls and 6500 outside.Interior of Fort, Bombay.
1841, February 24th.
 Bombay street notes:-

"The Fort is now a second Augean stable — heat suffocating.
March 24th. 
—" We are informed that H. E. has directed that the oval space called Bombay Green, in the centre of which the statue of the Marquis Cornwallis now stands, is to be neatly laid out and railed in as a garden
Sir Robert Grant
suggested the planting of all the roadsides with trees. Now un fait accompli, well and truly done."

October 12th. —
" The unhealthy position of the Colaba Barracks is now fully demonstrated." All nonsense. The two Napiers put this all to right. 

1849, February 16th. — 
" Our nuisances are the barking of pariah dogs at night. Ferocious dogs attack people at ChurCH Gate at night." I am afraid they are like the poor, " always with us." 
1850, September. —
" Eumour that Elephanta is to be turned into a tavern and ball-room." More nonsense.
The next fond anticipation has been answered by the custodians

1850:-
locking the Elphinstone Garden gates at sundown. " Bombay Green — a swamp in monsoon and a receptacle of stones and dust in fine weather. Shall we ever see fond lovers there, sitting under the shade of umbrageous trees " ? 
November. —
" Children not burned, but buried in the sands of Back Bay." 

1851, May. —
 "The moat round Bombay, 2| miles in length, is now dry from end to end, and was never dry before." 
1852, June 18th. —
 " The Fort is no cleaner nor more savory than it was in your time " (say 1832). 
1852, April 11th. — 
" A monster petition to the Court of Directors, London, from the inhabitants of Bombay, against any building being erected on Bombay Green.Copy sent to every firm or individual in England who knew Bombay." 
1853, November 19th. —
" Saw a corpse strung by four cords jostled through the streets to its shallow hole in the sands of Back Bay." 

1854. —
"Hornby Eow is one of the filthiest streets in Bombay." Many letters in the papers on the Main Drain Nuisance.

August 19th. —
" The Town Hall is now in a very dirty condition ; the stairway the resort of idle gamblers and so forth.

 November. — 
" Corpses floating in harbour after the Great Storm. Public notice to abstain from fish, as was done in 1827 and '37." 
1856, September 9th. —
 " Vehar works in progress." 
1857, October 20th. — " Dr. Buist proposes to cover the main
drain." A most earnest and useful man. Who knows if the
seeds of his illness and death were not sown in such foul
surroundings ?
1858, May 15th. — 

" The sanitary condition of Bombay is a disgrace to us all."
1859, May 17th.—

" Ditch fearfully foul."
1860, February 29th. — 

"From Colaba Church to the light- house the stink might be cut with a knife.
" May 3rd. — "A
(THE BLACK DEATH)[PLAGUE DEATH]
Goanese corpse from the Jejeebhoy Hospital was left at Sonapore Churchyard and eaten by vultures and dogs."





Government House, Fort, Bombay--Date: 1826--Artist: Gonsalves, Jose M. (fl. 1826-c.1842)

Government House, Fort, Bombay.

Lithograph of the Government House in the Fort in Bombay by Jose M. Gonsalves (fl. 1826-c.1842). Plate 2 from his 'Lithographic Views of Bombay' published in Bombay in 1826. Gonsalves, thought to be of Goan origin, was one of the first artists to practice lithography in Bombay and specialised in topographical views of the city.

This view of the Government House in the fort area of Bombay was taken from Bombay Green. On the right is the monument to Marquis Cornwallis, the Governor-General and Commander in Chief in India from 1786 to 1793. The location of the Government House in Bombay changed several times. Originally, the Government House was located in Bombay Castle. The second Government House, shown in this view, was situated in the fort area on Apollo Street and functioned as the official residence of the Governor until 1829. The third Government House at Parel had already been used as a Country retreat for the Governor from 1719. In the 1880s, the location of the Government House was moved once again to Malabar Point.



Scene in Bombay--Date: 1826--Artist: Grindlay, Robert Melville (1786-1877)st Thomas cathedral seen

Scene in Bombay Plate 7

Grindlay explains that in 1811, the Bombay 'Green' was "an irregular area, surrounded by various public buildings and originally intended for the Garrison-Parade; but occupied during the dry season by vast piles of cotton bales, marine stores, and various bulky articles of merchandise."


Bombay fort' General view of Bombay. Arthur Willmore --Date: 1840

'Bombay.'  General view of Bombay.  Arthur Willmore after Thomas Allom.

Engraving of a general view of Bombay by Arthur Willmore (1814-88) after Thomas Allom (1804-1872) and dated c.1840. The area of Bombay was originally composed of seven islands. In 1661, these islands were acquired by the British Crown from the Portuguese as part of the marriage dowry of Catherine of Braganza when she married Charles II. From 1668, the East India Company leased the land from the British Crown and developed the area as a trading port. A manor house of the Portuguese, situated on Bombay Island, provided a suitable site for the fort. A custom house, warehouse, quay and fortifications were also built soon after. In the 18th century, the town surrounding the fort was developed. This included the contruction a number of public buildings, the creation of outer fortifications and the clearance of land surrounding this area. In this view, the flagstaff within this area is shown. By the 1860s, the need for military defence lessened and Governor Sir Bartle Frere demolished the fort walls. As a result, Bombay underwent an ambitious phase of building in the Victorian style.


'View in Basseen Fort'. Captain James Barton's 12 Views of Hill Forts in the Western Ghats near Bombay, London, c.1820.

Artist: Barton, James, Capt (1793-1829)--Medium: Lithograph Date: 1820


'View in Basseen Fort'.  Captain James Barton's 12 Views of Hill Forts in the Western Ghats near Bombay, London, c.1820.  Pl. 7.

A TEMPLE NEAR TO PORTUGESE CHURCHES IN THE BASSEIN FORT[VASAI FORT]1820


Coloured lithograph of a view in Bassein Fort by Rudolph Ackermann (1764-1834) after Captain James Barton (1793-1829) plate 7 of Barton's 12 Views of Hill Forts in the Western Ghats near Bombay published in London c.1820. Bassein (Vasai) is situated at the mouth of the Ulhas River north of Bombay. In 1534, the Portuguese seized Bassein from Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat, and the town remained in their control for just over 200 years. At the height of its prosperity, Bassein had 5 convents and 13 churches. In 1739, Bassein was taken by the Marathas. In 1802, the British secured the Treaty of Bassein with Peshwa Baji Rao II, which allowed British forces to be stationed in Maratha territory.


Sewri Fort, Bombay, looking across to Trombay Island. An officer, probably a self portrait, is shown sketching


Date: 1828--Artist: Miller, William (1795-1836)
Sewri  Fort, Bombay, looking across to Trombay Island.  An officer, probably a self portrait, is shown sketching

Pen and ink drawing of Sewri Fort in Bombay looking across to Trombay Island by William Miller (1795-1836) in 1828.The image is inscribed: 'Suree from below the Band hill. Bandalah. W.M. December 1828'.

Sewri Fort was located on the eastern shore of Parel Island and constructed in 1770. Parel Island, along with Trombay, was one of seven that originally made up the area of Bombay. The artist, William Miller, had a house at Parel. It was located at Vadalla between the towns of Sewri and Matunga. In this view an officer is shown sketching on the left. This figure is probably a self portrait of the artist.


A view at Calbadavie [Bombay].--Date: 1850--Photographer: Scott, Charles

A view at Calbadavie [Bombay].


Photograph of Kalbadevi, Bombay from 'Views in the island of Bombay' by Charles Scott,1850s. The area of Kalbadevi was named after the shrine dedicated to the goddess Kali in this area. In the 18th and 19th century, Hindu immigrants from Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch and Marwar moved to Bombay to escape famine and drought in their homelands and settle in Bombay, where there was economic growth and prosperity. Kalbadevi was one of the areas where they settled. Some of the houses drew inspiration from Gujarat or Rajasthan, the areas where the residents came from. Kalbadevi was also a busy commercial centre with the Gujarati and Marwari Jewellers conducting their business and as a centre for trade in cotton and metals.



Cotton stores, Bombay.-Date: 1855-Photographer: Johnson and Henderson

Cotton stores, Bombay.

A photograph of a view of a cotton warehouse, Bombay from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by an unknown photographer about 1855.Before the mid 19th Century, India used to export cotton to Britain, and then reimport cloth. The impetus towards the founding of a cotton industry came from Indian entrepreneurs; the first mill, ‘The Bombay Spinning Mill’, was opened in 1854 in Bombay by Cowasji Nanabhai Davar. Opposition from the Lancashire mill owners was eventually offset by the support of the British manufacturers of textile machinery. Cotton exports from India took off during the American Civil War, when supplies from the USA were interrupted.


Bombay, from Malabar Hill-date: 1855--Photographer: Johnson and Henderson

Bombay, from Malabar Hill.

A photograph of a view of Bombay from Malabar Hill from the 'Vibart Collection of Views in South India' taken by an unknown photographer about 1855. Originally, Bombay was composed of seven islands separated by a marshy swamp. It’s deep natural harbour led the Portuguese settlers of the 16th Century to call it Bom Bahia (the Good Bay). The British Crown acquired the islands in 1661when Catherine of Braganza married Charles II, as part of her marriage dowry. It was then presented to the East India Company in 1668. The second governor, Gerald Aungier, developed Bombay into a trading port and centre for commerce and inducements were offered to skilled workers and traders to move here.

please note:- The second governor, Gerald Aungier, developed Bombay into a trading port and centre for commerce and inducements were offered to skilled workers and traders to move here.


BOMBAY-1850-MALABAR HILL -Photographer: Scott, Charles

Malabar Hill [Bombay].

Photograph looking at the eastern part of Malabar Hill, Bombay from 'Views in the island of Bombay' by Charles Scott,1850s. Malabar Hill, the highest point in Bombay, is where the Silhara Kings (r.810-1260) founded the original Walkeshwar Temple. The temple was destroyed by the Portuguese and rebuilt in 1715 by Rama Kamath. By 1860, the temple attracted many people and there were 10 to 20 other temples around it and 50 dharamshalas. Fairs were held near the temple.

Mountstuart Elphinstone built the first Bungalow in Malabar Hill during his governorship from 1818 to 1827. After this many more people built houses here and the area became a posh locality which it still remains.

 WILD ANIMALS INCLUDING TIGERS WERE REPORTED ON MALABAR HILL 1850

. Malabar Hill was named so in the early days of British rule as it housed a military battery to foil a fleet of pirates operating from Malabar who would lie in wait to attack commercial vessels.
. The Malabar-Cumbala Hills were tropical forests, which had a good population of wild animals like snakes, pythons, monkeys and the elusive tiger.



Bombay 1881-VIEW FROM MALABAR HILL was possibly taken looking east from Cumbala Hill.

Bombay 1881.















































BASSEN FORT(VASAI FORT) BOMBAY-1780




The British Library says that it is a "Pen-and-ink and wash drawing of the Fort of Bassein in Maharashtra by Charles Reynolds (c.1756-1819) in 1780.


BOMBAY-1675-PEOPLE AND BUSINESS

In 1661, the islands of Bombay passed to the British Crown, when Charles II married Catherine of Braganza. However, the Portuguese garrison in Bassein refused to part with the islands of Salsette, Parel, Worli and Mazagaon.1700 Map

Proceeding roughly south to north, the seven islands ceded by the Portuguese to the British were
  1. Colaba: whose name is a corruption of the Koliname Kolbhat.
  2. Old Woman's Island: (alternatively, Old Man's Island) a small rock between Colaba and Bombay, whose name is a corruption of the Arabic name Al-Omani, after the deep-sea fishermen who ranged up to the Gulf of Oman.
  3. Bombay: the main harbour and the nucleus of the British fort from which the modern city grew; it stretched from Dongri on the east to Malabar Hill on the west.
  4. Mazagaon: a Koli settlement to the east of Bombay island was seperated from it by Umarkhadi andPydhonie.
  5. Worli: north of Bombay was seperated from it by the Great Breach, which extended westwards almost to Dongri.
  6. Parel: North of Mazagaon and called by many other names, including Matunga, Dharavi and Sion. The original population was predominantly Koli.
  7. Mahim: to the west of Parel and north of Worli, took its name from the Mahim river and was the capital of a 13th century kingdom founded by Raja Bhimdev.

This list does not exhaust all the islands that have merged into the modern city of Bombay. In particular,Salsette, the large northern island which remained under Portuguese control till 1739, is not counted among these seven.



 British soldiers captured these islands only in 1665, and a treaty was signed in the manor house on the island of Bombay.
The British East India Company received it from the crown in 1668 for the sum of 10 pounds a year, payable every September 30. Sir George Oxenden, then President of the factory in Surat, became the first Governor of Bombay. The Company immediately set about the task of opening up the islands by constructing a quay and warehouses. A customs house was also built. Fortifications were made around the manor house, now renamed Bombay Castle. A Judge-Advocate was appointed for the purpose of civil administration. Sir George died in 1669.
Gerald Aungier was appointed the President of the Surat factory and Governor of Bombay in 1672, and remained at this post till 1675. He offered various inducement to skilled workers and traders to set up business in the new township. As a result, a large number of Parsis, Armenian, Bohras, Jews, Gujarati banias from Surat and Diu and Brahmins from Salsette came to Bombay. The population of Bombay was estimated to have risen from 10,000 in 1661 to 60,000 in 1675.
The first four governors held Bombay for the Crown:-

1Abraham Shipman19 March 1662October 16642
2Humphrey CookeFebruary 16655 November 16661Acting
3Gervase Lucas5 November 166621 May 16671
4Henry Gary22 May 166723 September 16681Acting


1George Oxeden23 September 166814 July 16691
2Matthew Gray14 July 16697 June 16723Acting
3Gerald Aungier7 June 167230 June 16775
4Henry Oxenden30 June 167727 October 16814
5John Child27 October 168127 December 16832
6Richard Keigwin27 December 168319 November 16841Acting
7Charles Zinzan19 November 168416851Acting
8John Wyborne16852 May 16872Acting
9John Child2 May 16874 Feb 16903
10Bartholomew Harris4 February 169010 May 16944
11Daniel Annesley10 May 169417 May 1694Acting
12John Gayer17 May 1694November 170410

Gerald Aungier established the first mint in Bombay. In 1670 the Parsi businessman Bhimjee Parikh imported the first printing press into Bombay.

 Aungier planned extensive fortifications from Dongri in the north to Mendham's Point (near present day Lion Gate) in the south. However, these walls were only built in the beginning of the 18th century. The harbour was also developed, with space for the berthing of 20 ships. In 1686, the Company shifted its main holdings from Surat to Bombay.
During the Portuguese occupation, Bombay exported only coir and coconuts. With the coming of many Indian and British merchants, Bombay's trade developed. Soon it was trading in salt, rice, ivory, cloth, lead and sword blades with many Indian ports as well as with Mecca and Basra.



Life India-- Elephants Stable--Bullock powered Mill---Bullock cart --




Hill Fort of Mhowle-Lithographer: Ackermann, Rudolph (1764-1834) Medium: Lithograph Date: 1820

Hill Fort of Mhowle

Coloured lithograph of the Hill Fort of Mhowle in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra by Rudolph Ackermann (1764-1834) after an original drawing by Captain James Barton (1793-1829). Plate 8 of 'Captain James Barton's 12 Views of Hill Forts in the Western Ghats near Bombay' published in London c.1820. The Western Ghats are a range of hills that reach from the state of Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu and separate Bombay, on the western coast, from central India. This view shows a British encampment in front of a large outcrop of rock at Mowle. The artist, Captain James Barton, was an artillery officer who served in the third Anglo-Maratha war in 1817-19.



Hill Fort on the Island of Caranjah-near BOMBAY-Artist: Forbes, James Medium: Engraving Date: 1813

Hill Fort on the Island of Caranjah
From Salsette near Bombay, Forbes(1749-1819) sailed to Karanja and landed about two miles from the principal town, situated between two lofty mountains, on the west. He observed that it was: 'nothing more than a large Mahratta village, with low-straggling houses, near a tank covered with wild ducks and water-fowls, hitherto unmolested by Europeans. On its bank a small fort, a Portuguese church and a Hindoo temple embellished the view. It commands a western view of the town and harbour of Bombay, Salsette and all the adjacent islands, and to the east the mountains of the continent, and nearer plains of Caranjah; abounding in rice-fields, coco-nut, palmyra, mango and tamarind trees, filled with monkeys, parrots, owls, and singing-birds of various kinds'.


The Fort of Visiadroog - Southern Koncan. One of a series of Views in India and in the vicinity of Bombay




Lithographer: Spreat, William (fl. mid-19th century)Medium: LithographDate: 1850

Lithograph of the Fort at Vijayadurg by William Spreat after an original sketch by Robert Pouget and one of a series of 'Views in India and in the vicinity of Bombay' dated c.1850 and published in London.
The Fort at Vijayadurg is located at the mouth of the Vaghotan creek on the western coast of India between Goa and Bombay. The fort, built by the Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur, was strengthened and enlarged by the Maratha ruler Shivaji from 1669. While main entrance to the fort on the landward side was protected by outworks and a moat, the inner circuit of walls include 20 towers and rise to the height of 36m.


1858-BOMBAY FORT




Commencement of the Reservoir, in the Valley of Vehar, Island of Salsette," Illustrated London News, 1856*




1770-BOMBAY



The Strait Between the Islands of Bombay and Salsette(before mahim causeway/bridge was made) by William Carpenter (1818-99). Watercolour on paper.




The Strait Between the Islands of Bombay and Salsette from a Portuguese Church Bandra, India Giclee Print

A general view of a British station Date: 1860. Image from Mary Evans - Prints Online

CURRY&RICE/BRIT STATION

Lord Hastings' flotilla on the river, with many pinnace budgerows--Artist: Sita Ram (fl. c.1810-1822) Medium: Watercolour Date: 1814

Lord Hastings' flotilla on the river, with many pinnace budgerows









































A View of Black Wall with part of the Yard--Artist: Dodd, R Medium: Engraving Date: 1789

Dodd, the artist, explained: "This view was taken at the launch of the Bombay Castle, a 74-gun ship built at the expence of the Hon[ora]ble East India Company and presented by them to His Majesty. Blackwall is the most eminent place on the river Thames for building and equipping ships for the service of the Honb.le East India Company. The Dockyard has been considered as the East India Yard from the year 1608 and at this time more capacious than any other private yard in the Kingdom or probably in the world…"


A View of Black Wall with part of the Yard

1908-RIOT OUTSIDE ESPLANADE COURT ;BEFORE TRIAL OF CONGRESS LEADER B.G.TILAK


A Hindoo Fair, a wood engraving from the Illustrated London News, 1858