Monday, December 24, 2012

campaigning to save Vasai Fort.

Explicit stone tablet found in Vasai

Explicit stone tablet found in Vasai
The 750-year-old stone bears an image of a donkey copulating with a human female and may have been intended to warn intruders to keep off the territory.
MUMBAI: The otherwise-articulate historians of Vasai have been left fumbling for words as they try to explain a new discovery. Early this month, a team of historians recovered a 750-year-old stone tablet with a sexually explicit inscription that would make a sailor blush.

A bygone local king or chieftain, whose identity is yet to be ascertained, had most likely commissioned the carving as a warning sign either to keep intruders at bay or to ensure that tax collectors deposited their revenue, said the historians.

"The stone bears an image of a donkey copulating with a human female, perhapsthreatening transgressors that a similar fate would befall their women should their menfolk ignore the warning," said historian Shridatta Raut, of Kille Vasai Mohim, who chanced upon the tablet. Traditionally, property owners in the area placed carved stones at the entrance to their plots, a practice that Vasaikars follow to this day. Intruders were warned with abusive words, although such pictorial abuse is uncommon. The mohim (a mission group) is campaigning to save Vasai Fort.
The stone, dating back to 1268 AD, was recovered from Kiravali village. It measures 126cm in length, 56cm in width and 22cm in breadth. The 'bliss water' picture with carvings of the sun and moon on the stone are meant to signify the respected nature of the person who issued the warning and his protection day and night.

Villagers won't hand over tablet to ASI

Kille Vasai Mohim has unearthed a sexually explicit tablet. "The stone dates back to the era of the Shilahara kings, who ruled Vasai around 1,000 years ago. It bears a few lines in Sanskrit that we are trying to decipher. Years of exposure to the elements and accumulated dirt have blurred the inscription, but we have read a series of 'Shri Shri Shri Shri' , which shows that the tablet must have been commissioned by a senior courtier or perhaps a Brahmin," said Shridatta Raut of the Mohim.

The Shilahara kings ruled over Vasai before the advent of the Portuguese rule in 1536. Raut says an unexplained gap in leadership spanning centuries may be solved with this recovery. Interestingly, the tablet was once a venerated artefact in the village.

It lay in the Chankai Devi Mandir , where villagers used to break coconuts upon it on amavasya or new moon day. Later, it was kept beside a nearby pond.

Raut was visiting the temple when villagers mentioned the tablet. The historian and his team carefully removed and cleaned the tablet and were surprised at its historical value.

The villagers are determined not to hand over the treasure to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) for safekeeping. "For one thing, the ASI did not find it. Moreover, its record of conservation and storage of artefacts is so poor that some years later you might not know if the tablet belonged to Vasai or Churchgate," said Raut. 

Vasai, also called Bassein, lies about 48 kms north of Mumbai just across the Ulhas River.  The fort in the old city was the headquarter of the Portuguese in the north, next in importance to Goa.  The coastal land-fort of Vasai was surrounded by sea on three sides and to the landside it had a moat which was filled by sea-water.  Its 4.5kms long strong stone wall had 11 bastions.  The fort had two gates – the westward land-gate.  There was also a small citadel in the fort.  Well – equipped with water-tanks, store-houses, armoury, etc., the fort also had fields for growing grains and vegetables.  All the old structures inside the wall are now in ruins.
Vasai came into prominence when the ancient harbour of Sopara (now Nalsopara village, 10kms north of Vasai) became unfit for use.  However, Vasai continued to be a trading centre.  A small fort-like structure was erected here in 1533 AD by Malik Tughan, the commander of Bahadur Shah, Sultan of Gujarat.  In 1534 AD, the Portuguese forced Bahadur Shah to cede Vasai in perpetuity.  Here, first they constructed the citadel (Balekilla), and then in 1590AD, the present fort with its ramparts and other structures came into being.  For the next about 150 years Vasai enjoyed opulence and prosperity.  The Portuguese built here magnificent houses, convents, churches and an orphanage.  Only the Hidalgos (Portuguese nobles) were allowed to reside within the fort walls.  Vasai was the main naval base and sort of ship-building centre of the Portuguese.  The end came in 1739AD, when Chimaji Appa, Peshwa Bajirav’s brother, stormed the fort and captured it with great loss of life.  It was here in 1802 AD, the Peshwa Bajirav II signed the infamous “Treaty of Bassein” which virtually dissolved the Maratha Confederacy.  Finally, the fort and the city of Vasai was ceded to the British in 1817 AD.

Friday, December 21, 2012

money saving BEFORE EMAIL :-Collect call; systematic using of under-paid postage;1970--1990 and early computers

A collect call , known as a reverse charge call , is a telephone call in which the calling party wants to place a call at the called party's expense. In the past, collect calls were only possible as an operator-assisted call, but with the introduction of computer-based telephone dialing equipment, it is now possible to place a collect call without using an operator,
  Collect calling has been in constant decline since the advent of cellular phones and VOIP products such as Skype.

 Underpaid letters are not delivered sometimes , they are returned to the sender.
many a time  it was paid by the receiver; if it was covered post ;in the belief it may be precious 
many miserly(stingy) people used it as a way to save money

If you learned computer programming in the 1970's, you dealt with what today are called mainframe computers, such as the IBM 7090 (shown below), IBM 360, or IBM 370.
The IBM 7094, a typical mainframe computer [photo courtesy of IBM] 
There were 2 ways to interact with a mainframe. The first was called time sharing because the computer gave each user a tiny sliver of time in a round-robin fashion. Perhaps 100 users would be simultaneously logged on, each typing on a teletype such as the following:
The Teletype was the standard mechanism used to interact with a time-sharing computer
A teletype was a motorized typewriter that could transmit your keystrokes to the mainframe and then print the computer's response on its roll of paper. You typed a single line of text, hit the carriage return button, and waited for the teletype to begin noisily printing the computer's response (at a whopping 10 characters per second). On the left-hand side of the teletype in the prior picture you can observe a paper tape reader and writer (i.e., puncher). Here's a close-up of paper tape:
Three views of paper tape
After observing the holes in paper tape it is perhaps obvious why all computers use binary numbers to represent data: a binary bit (that is, one digit of a binary number) can only have the value of 0 or 1 (just as a decimal digit can only have the value of 0 thru 9). Something which can only take two states is very easy to manufacture, control, and sense. In the case of paper tape, the hole has either been punched or it has not. Electro-mechanical computers such as the Mark I used relays to represent data because a relay (which is just a motor driven switch) can only be open or closed. The earliest all-electronic computers used vacuum tubes as switches: they too were either open or closed. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes because they too could act as switches but were smaller, cheaper, and consumed less power.
Paper tape has a long history as well. It was first used as an information storage medium by Sir Charles Wheatstone, who used it to store Morse code that was arriving via the newly invented telegraph (incidentally, Wheatstone was also the inventor of the accordion).
The alternative to time sharing was batch mode processing, where the computer gives its full attention to your program. In exchange for getting the computer's full attention at run-time, you had to agree to prepare your program off-line on a key punch machine which generated punch cards.
An IBM Key Punch machine which operates like a typewriter except it produces punched cards rather than a printed sheet of paper 
University students in the 1970's bought blank cards a linear foot at a time from the university bookstore. Each card could hold only 1 program statement. To submit your program to the mainframe, you placed your stack of cards in the hopper of a card reader. Your program would be run whenever the computer made it that far. You often submitted your deck and then went to dinner or to bed and came back later hoping to see a successful printout showing your results. Obviously, a program run in batch mode could not be interactive.
But things changed fast. By the 1990's a university student would typically own his own computer and have exclusive use of it in his dorm room.
The original IBM Personal Computer (PC)
This transformation was a result of the invention of the microprocessor. A microprocessor (uP) is a computer that is fabricated on an integrated circuit (IC). Computers had been around for 20 years before the first microprocessor was developed at Intel in 1971. The micro in the name microprocessor refers to the physical size. Intel didn't invent the electronic computer. But they were the first to succeed in cramming an entire computer on a single chip (IC).
 Intel was started in 1968 and initially produced only semiconductor memory (Intel invented both the DRAM and the EPROM, two memory technologies that are still going strong today). 
                                                     Window-Type Package for EPROM
: Intel formed by Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, & Andy Grove ##

In 1969 they were approached by Busicom, a Japanese manufacturer of high performance calculators (these were typewriter sized units, 
Original Busicom Prototype Calculator
Photo of the original engineering prototype
of the Busicom desktop printing calculator.
the first shirt-pocket sized scientific calculator was the Hewlett-Packard HP35 introduced in 1972).
 Busicom wanted Intel to produce 12 custom calculator chips: one chip dedicated to the keyboard, another chip dedicated to the display, another for the printer, etc.
 But integrated circuits were (and are) expensive to design and this approach would have required Busicom to bear the full expense of developing 12 new chips since these 12 chips would only be of use to them.  
A typical Busicom desk calculator
But a new Intel employee (Ted Hoff) convinced Busicom to instead accept a general purpose computer chip which, like all computers, could be reprogrammed for many different tasks (like controlling a keyboard, a display, a printer, etc.). Intel argued that since the chip could be reprogrammed for alternative purposes, the cost of developing it could be spread out over more users and hence would be less expensive to each user. The general purpose computer is adapted to each new purpose by writing a program which is a sequence of instructions stored in memory (which happened to be Intel's forte). Busicom agreed to pay Intel to design a general purpose chip and to get a price break since it would allow Intel to sell the resulting chip to others.

But development of the chip took longer than expected and Busicom pulled out of the project. Intel knew it had a winner by that point and gladly refunded all of Busicom's investment just to gain sole rights to the device which they finished on their own.
Thus became the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor (uP).

 The 4004 consisted of 2300 transistors and was clocked at 108 kHz (i.e., 108,000 times per second). Compare this to the 42 million transistors and the 2 GHz clock rate (i.e., 2,000,000,000 times per second) used in a Pentium 4. One of Intel's 4004 chips still functions aboard the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is now the man-made object farthest from the earth.
Curiously, Busicom went bankrupt and never ended up using the ground-breaking microprocessor.
A Harvard freshman by the name of Bill Gates decided to drop out of college 
so he could concentrate all his time writing programs for this computer. This early experienced put Bill Gates in the right place at the right time once IBM decided to standardize on the Intel microprocessors for their line of PCs in 1981. The Intel Pentium 4 used in today's PCs is still compatible with the Intel 8088 used in IBM's first PC